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 أحداث 28 أبريل

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تاريخ التسجيل : 25/09/2008

أحداث 28 أبريل Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: أحداث 28 أبريل   أحداث 28 أبريل Icon_minitimeالإثنين نوفمبر 08, 2010 7:49 am

أحداث 28 أبريل :
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1700-4-28
معركة جدوية
العثمانيون بقيادة ( مصطفى دايي) ينتصرون على السلطان (إسماعيل الكبير )سلطان فاس في (معركة جدوية )، والمعركة تسفر عن مقتل 30 ألفاً من الفاسيين
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1758-4-28
مولد جيمس مونرو الرئيس الخامس للولايات المتحدة الأميركية.
وصاحب "مبدأ مونرو" الشهير الذي منع الولايات المتحدة من التدخل في الصراعات الخارجية
ولد عام 1758م، تولى الرئاسة عام 1816م.

Future U.S. Senator and President James Monroe Monroe is born


Monroe, a contemporary of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, was the last of the original revolutionaries to become president. He served in the Continental Army and was wounded in the shoulder at the Battle of Trenton in New Jersey. Prior to becoming president, Monroe served as Washington’s ambassador to France (1804-1807) and Madison’s secretary of state (1811-1817). He was also the first U.S. senator to become president and the first president to ride on the technological wonder of his era, the steamboat. Monroe’s presidency is best known for his negotiation of the Missouri Compromise and his philosophy regarding territorial expansion in the Western Hemisphere, which became known as the Monroe Doctrine.

In 1820, President Monroe signed into law the Missouri Compromise, also known as the Compromise Bill of 1820. The bill attempted to solve tensions over slavery by promising to add an equal number of slave-holding and non-slave-holding states into the Union in the future. Although Monroe realized that slavery conflicted with the values written into the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, he favored strong states’ rights over federalism and feared the fissure over slavery would split the Union he and his contemporaries had fought so hard to establish.

Passage of the Missouri Compromise contributed to the “Era of Good Feelings” over which Monroe presided and facilitated his election to a second term. In his second inaugural address, Monroe optimistically pointed out that although the nation had struggled in its infancy, “no serious conflict has arisen” that was not solved peacefully between the federal and state governments. “By steadily pursuing this course,” he predicted, “there is every reason to believe that our system will soon attain the highest degree of perfection of which human institutions are capable.” In the end, though, the Missouri Compromise failed to permanently ease the underlying tensions caused by the slavery issue. The conflict that flared up during the bill’s drafting presaged how the nation would eventually divide along territorial, economic and ideological lines 40 years later during the Civil War.

Monroe’s foreign policy fared better. In 1823, Monroe delivered a message to Congress outlining U.S. policy toward territorial expansion. He warned foreign nations with possessions in North America and the Western Hemisphere against any further expansion, saying that the U.S. would consider any additional colonial expansion as dangerous to America’s “peace and safety.” In return, he promised not to interfere in these nations’ existing colonial affairs. This policy, originally articulated by former president James Madison and fleshed out by Monroe’s Secretary of State (and future president) John Quincy Adams, was thereafter referred to as the Monroe Doctrine.

To those who knew him well, Monroe had a reputation as a hard-working and good-natured man who was a little old-fashioned when it came to personal dress. As president, he wore what was by then considered outdated Revolutionary War-era attire. White House social life under Monroe was low-key--both he and his wife Elizabeth preferred private, stately affairs modeled after European society to the larger, more lively parties hosted by some of Monroe’s predecessors. Private and stately did not come cheap, however, and Monroe was forced to lobby Congress for money to refurbish the barely livable White House, which had been badly damaged in the War of 1812.

After leaving office, Monroe tried to get Congress to reimburse him for additional personal funds he had spent on furniture for the White House. Partly as a consequence of funding White House furnishings with his own money, Monroe fell heavily into debt, and was forced to sell his Virginia estate and move in with his daughter, who lived in New York City. He died in 1831.
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1776-4-28
الكولونيل ماكنتوش يكتب رسالة إلي واشنطن
Colonel McIntosh writes to Washington
In a letter dated April 28, 1776, from Savannah, Georgia, Colonel Lachlan McIntosh informs General George Washington that he is pleased with his recruitment efforts in the colony. However, McIntosh’s news was not all good: he concluded his letter with the report that because the South had limited manufacturing capability, the price of needed goods was two or three times higher than in the North, making procurement of clothing and arms for the new recruits difficult.

McIntosh had only recently risen from the position of colonel in the Georgia militia to colonel in the Continental Army. The promotion was a reward for his successful defense of Savannah from British attack in the Battle of the Rice Boats, which had taken place in the Savannah River between Georgia and South Carolina on March 2 and 3.

Although McIntosh was born in Scotland, his family moved to Georgia in 1736, when Lachlan was 11 years old. The colony of Georgia came into existence as a military buffer zone between South Carolina rice plantations, run by African slaves while their British landlords enjoyed the Caribbean sun, and the Spanish colony of Florida. During the War of Jenkin’s Ear between British Georgians and Spanish Floridians, Lachlan’s father was taken captive in 1740. Though released, his health was never recovered, and he died shortly thereafter.

After a stint in famous British evangelist George Whitefield’s Savannah orphanage, Lachlan McIntosh set out to receive military training. He and his brother, William McIntosh, wanted to join the Jacobite Rebellion of Scots against Queen Mary and Prince William of Orange, but, as promising young men, were convinced to stay in Georgia by the colony’s founder, James Oglethorpe.

Lachlan McIntosh found plenty of other opportunities to fight the British crown beginning on January 7, 1776, when he received his commission as a colonel in the Georgia militia.

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1789-4-28
جرى العصيان الشهير على السفينة " باونتي " الانجليزية Mutiny on the HMS Bounty

Three weeks into a journey from Tahiti to the West Indies, the HMS Bounty is seized in a mutiny led by Fletcher Christian, the master's mate. Captain William Bligh and 18 of his loyal supporters were set adrift in a small, open boat, and the Bounty set course for Tubuai south of Tahiti.

In December 1787, the Bounty left England for Tahiti in the South Pacific, where it was to collect a cargo of breadfruit saplings to transport to the West Indies. There, the breadfruit would serve as food for slaves. After a 10-month journey, the Bounty arrived in Tahiti in October 1788 and remained there for more than five months. On Tahiti, the crew enjoyed an idyllic life, reveling in the comfortable climate, lush surroundings, and the famous hospitality of the Tahitians. Fletcher Christian fell in love with a Tahitian woman named Mauatua.

On April 4, 1789, the Bounty departed Tahiti with its store of breadfruit saplings. On April 28, near the island of Tonga, Christian and 25 petty officers and seamen seized the ship. Bligh, who eventually would fall prey to a total of three mutinies in his career, was an oppressive commander and insulted those under him. By setting him adrift in an overcrowded 23-foot-long boat in the middle of the Pacific, Christian and his conspirators had apparently handed him a death sentence. By remarkable seamanship, however, Bligh and his men reached Timor in the East Indies on June 14, 1789, after a voyage of about 3,600 miles. Bligh returned to England and soon sailed again to Tahiti, from where he successfully transported breadfruit trees to the West Indies.

Meanwhile, Christian and his men attempted to establish themselves on the island of Tubuai. Unsuccessful in their colonizing effort, the Bounty sailed north to Tahiti, and 16 crewmen decided to stay there, despite the risk of capture by British authorities. Christian and eight others, together with six Tahitian men, a dozen Tahitian women, and a child, decided to search the South Pacific for a safe haven. In January 1790, the Bounty settled on Pitcairn Island, an isolated and uninhabited volcanic island more than 1,000 miles east of Tahiti. The mutineers who remained on Tahiti were captured and taken back to England where three were hanged. A British ship searched for Christian and the others but did not find them.

In 1808, an American whaling vessel was drawn to Pitcairn by smoke from a cooking fire. The Americans discovered a community of children and women led by John Adams, the sole survivor of the original nine mutineers. According to Adams, after settling on Pitcairn the colonists had stripped and burned the Bounty, and internal strife and sickness had led to the death of Fletcher and all the men but him. In 1825, a British ship arrived and formally granted Adams amnesty, and he served as patriarch of the Pitcairn community until his death in 1829.

In 1831, the Pitcairn islanders were resettled on Tahiti, but unsatisfied with life there they soon returned to their native island. In 1838, the Pitcairn Islands, which includes three nearby uninhabited islands, was incorporated into the British Empire. By 1855, Pitcairn's population had grown to nearly 200, and the two-square-mile island could not sustain its residents. In 1856, the islanders were removed to Norfolk Island, a former penal colony nearly 4,000 miles to the west. However, less than two years later, 17 of the islanders returned to Pitcairn, followed by more families in 1864. Today, around 40 people live on Pitcairn Island, and all but a handful are descendants of the Bounty mutineers. About a thousand residents of Norfolk Island (half its population) trace their lineage from Fletcher Christian and the eight other Englishmen.

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1810-4-28
lمولد دانييل ألمان Daniel Ullmann
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1843-4-28
موت وليام واليس، عالم رياضيات اسكوتلندي
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1860-4-28
موت ايساك دا كوستا، كاتب وشاعر، مات وعمره 62 سنة
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1871-4-28

تحركت قوة من أراذل المستوطنين البيض تقدر بــ 148 رجل تجاه قبائل الهنود الحمر الساكنة في أودية أريزونا وهدفهم هو الخلاص الأبدي من بقايا قبيلة ( الأباتشي - Apache ) الذين تجمعوا في أودية أريزونا .
و بمجرد وصول المستعمرين البيض إلى مضارب الهنود الحمر شرعوا في قتلهم واستمر القتل حتى منتصف ليلة 30 من أبريل
وأسفر عن مقتل 110 من النساء والرجال والأطفال الهنود .
وبعد تلك المجزرة سئل أحد هؤلاء القتلة عن السبب وراء قتله لأطفال فبرر ذلك بأنه يسهل قتل الصغار عن الكبار ومافعل إلا أن استجاب لقائدهم الذي كان يصيح ( أقتلوا الأطفال لأنهم الآن صغار قبل أن يصيروا كباراً ) .
أما الذين لم يستسيغوا منهم فكرة قتل الأطفال فقد أمسكوا 28 طفلاّ هندياً قبل أن يرحلوا ليستفيدوا منهم حيث باعوهم لتجار الرقيق
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1876-4-28
إعلان فيكتوريا ملكة بريطانيا امبراطورة على الهند.
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1896-4-28
موت هنريك فون تريتسك، مؤرخ ألماني
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1897-4-28
Chickasaw and Choctaw abandon communal lands

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1899-4-28
تم في بطرسبرج، في روسيا، توقيع اتفاقية بين بريطانيا العظمى وروسيا في ما يتعلق بالصين
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1903-4-28
Ten more join ALAM
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1915-4-28
موقعة القرضابية في ليبيا
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1915-4-28
International Congress of Women opens at The Hague
The International Congress of Women convenes on this day in 1915 at The Hague, Netherlands, with more than 1,200 delegates from 12 countries—including Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, Poland, Belgium and the United States—all dedicated to the cause of peace and a resolution of the great international conflict that was World War I.

Often referred to as the Women’s Peace Congress, the meeting was the result of an invitation by a Dutch women’s suffrage organization, led by Aletta Jacobs, to women’s rights activists around the world, on the basis of the belief that a peaceful international assemblage of women would “have its moral effect upon the belligerent countries,” as Jacobs put it during her opening address to the conference on April 28, 1915.

“With mourning hearts we stand united here,” Jacobs told the assembled delegates. “We grieve for many brave young men who have lost their lives on the battlefield before attaining their full manhood; we mourn with the poor mothers bereft of their sons; with the thousands of young widows and fatherless children, and we feel that we can no longer endure in this twentieth century of civilization that government should tolerate brute force as the only solution of international disputes.” Over the course of the next three days, the congress worked out what they considered an alternative, non-violent form of conflict resolution, calling for a process of “continuous mediation” to be implemented, without armistice, until peace could be restored among the warring nations. This policy was set forward explicitly in a set of resolutions on May 1. The congress also marked the foundation of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), an organization that still exists today.

The American delegation to the congress in April 1915 included two future recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize: Jane Addams, the co-founder of Hull House, a social settlement that served as a welfare agency for needy families in Chicago, and Emily G. Balch, a sociologist who taught at Wellesley College. Another American delegate, Alice Hamilton, was a pathology professor and medical investigator who became the first female faculty member of Harvard University in 1919.

Other prominent international women who gathered at the Hague included Lida Gustava Heymann, one of 28 delegates from Germany; Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Emily Hobhouse and Chrystal Macmillan from Great Britain; and Rosika Schwimmer from Hungary. Notably absent from the International Women’s Congress were the French, whose government refused to allow delegates to attend the conference, although, as Balch later pointed out, “the French women have been the earliest to actually form their national organization in support of the program worked out at the congress.” Of the other belligerent nations, Russia, Serbia and Japan also failed to send any delegates to the conference. The British government, for its part, prevented most of its planned 180-member delegation from traveling to Holland by suspending regular commercial ferry service between the British port of Folkestone and the Dutch port of Flushing.
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1916-4-28
عُيّن الجنرال ليوتي مفوضاً عاماً لفرنسا في المغرب تكريماً له على خدماته العسكرية

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1917-4-28
أعلنت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية الحرب على ألمانيا ضمن أحداث الحرب العالمية الأولى. جاء حادث اغتيال ولي عهد النمسا فرانز فرديناند في 28-6-1914، على يد طالب صربي في سراييفو ليقوّض التوازن الأوروبي الدقيق.
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1917-4-28
تسلم هنري فيليب بيتان (1856 - 1951) قيادة القوات الفرنسية في الحرب العالمية الأولى، وقد أصبح رئيسًا للدولة بعد هزيمة عام 1940، اتهم بالخيانة وسجن عام 1945.

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1919-4-28
تم إعلان قيام عصبة الأمم في باريس.
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1929-4-28
الملك العراقي فيصل بن الحسين يكلف توفيق السويدي بتشكيل وزارة جديدة عقب تعيين كلبرت كلايتن مندوبا بريطانيا ساميا في العراق
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1930-4-28
Jim Baker is born
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1932-4-28
الإعلان عن لقاح ضد مرض الحمى الصفراء. وهو مرض مُعدٍ يتميز بتلف الكبد ومرض الصفراء، ويتم التطعيم ضده على نطاق عالمي.

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1924-4-28
مولد كينث كاوندا رئيس زامبيا.
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1935-4-28
حفر اول بئر نفط تجريبية في الدمام
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1935-4-28
تم تدشين شبكة الخطوط الحديدية في العاصمة موسكو، والتي يبلغ طولها 81 كيلومتر
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1936-4-28
فاروق الأول (1920 - 1965) يتسلم عرش مصر، أطيح به في ثورة يوليو عام 1952.
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1936-4-28
وفاة الملك فؤاد الأول ملك مصر الأسبق.
وفاة ملك مصر "فؤاد الأول"، وهو ابن الخديوي إسماعيل بن إبراهيم بن محمد علي باشا. ولد فؤاد 1868م، تولى الحكم في مصر في أكتوبر 1917 حتى وفاته إبريل 1936م، وقامت في عهده ثورة 1919م، وكان لقبه في بداية حكمه سلطانا، ثم أصدر مرسوما في مارس 1922 يعلن نفسه ملكا على مصر، وتألفت في عهده أول وزارة شعبية برئاسة سعد زغلول
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1936-4-28
فاروق الأول (1920 - 1965) يتسلم عرش مصر، أطيح به في ثورة يوليو عام 1952.
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1937-4-28
مولد الرئيس العراقي المخلوع صدام حسين
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1937-4-28
The Museum of Costume Arts opens

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1938-4-28
الغى أدولف هتلر المعاهدة البحرية الألمانية - البريطانية
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1939-4-28
هتلر يعلن الغاء ميثاق عدم الاعتداء الذي سبق ان وقعه مع بولندا.
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1939-4-28
Crosley produces first "bantam"

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1945-4-28
اعدام الدكتاتور الايطالي الفاشي بينيتو موسوليني رميا بالرصاص.إعدام بنيتو موسوليني مؤسس الحزب الفاشي الإيطالي (ولد عام 1883) وقف إلى جانب ألمانيا النازية في الحرب الكونية الثانية، وهُزمت بلاده أمام دول الحلفاء، أعدم في ميدان عام مع عشيقته.

Benito Mussolini is captured and executed by Italian partisans

On this day in 1945, "Il Duce," Benito Mussolini, and his mistress,
Clara Petacci, are shot by Italian partisans who had captured the
couple as they attempted to flee to Switzerland.

The 61-year-old deposed former dictator of Italy was established by
his German allies as the figurehead of a puppet government in northern
Italy during the German occupation toward the close of the war. As the
Allies fought their way up the Italian peninsula, defeat of the Axis
powers all but certain, Mussolini considered his options. Not wanting
to fall into the hands of either the British or the Americans, and
knowing that the communist partisans, who had been fighting the
remnants of roving Italian fascist soldiers and thugs in the north,
would try him as a war criminal, he settled on escape to a neutral
country.

He and his mistress made it to the Swiss border, only to discover that
the guards had crossed over to the partisan side. Knowing they would
not let him pass, he disguised himself in a Luftwaffe coat and helmet,
hoping to slip into Austria with some German soldiers. His subterfuge
proved incompetent, and he and Petacci were discovered by partisans
and shot, their bodies then transported by truck to Milan, where they
were hung upside down and displayed publicly for revilement by the
masses.
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1951-4-28
أصبح الدكتور محمد مصدق رئيساً لوزراء إيران. قام محمد مصدق، بعد تعيينه رئيساً للوزراء، بتأميم البترول الإيراني من السيطرة البريطانية، مما دفع بريطانيا، خوفاً على امتيازاتها البترولية، إلى تجميد جميع الأصول الإيرانية في البنوك البريطانية ورفعت القضية إلى محكمة العدل الدولي .
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1952-4-28
دخول اتفاقية السلام في المحيط الهادئ الخاصة بالحرب العالمية الثانية حيز التنفيذ.
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1952-4-28
Ike steps down as supreme commander

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1959-4-28
في فرنسا : استقالة ديجول
De Gaulle resigns

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1960-4-28
موت أنطون بانكيك، عالم فلكي، مات وعمره 87 سنة
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1963-4-28
حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي في سوريا يسرح الضباط من ذوي الميول الناصرية من الجيش بعد استيلائه على السلطة في انقلاب 8-3-1963 والذي نفذته مجموعة عسكرية ضمت ضباطاً بعثيين وناصريين ووحدويين مستقلين.
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1965-4-28
@Cold War
U.S. troops land in the Dominican Republic
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1977-4-28
Red Army Faction trial ends

In Stuttgart, West Germany, the lengthy trial of the leaders of the terrorist Baader-Meinhof Gang, also known as the Red Army Faction, ends with Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, and Jan-Carl Raspe being found guilty of four counts of murder and more than 30 counts of attempted murder. Each defendant was sentenced to life imprisonment, Germany's most severe punishment.

The Red Army Faction was founded by ultra-left revolutionaries Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof in 1968. Advocating communist revolution in West Germany, the group employed terrorist tactics against government, military, and corporate leaders in an effort to topple capitalism in their homeland. Baader was imprisoned in 1970 but escaped, and Meinhof was captured in 1972. In 1976, Baader was recaptured, and Meinhof hanged herself in her cell.

During the trial of Baader and his associates, the few Red Army Faction members still at large continued their program of violence and assassination. In 1976, two Baader-Meinhof guerrillas took part in the Palestinian hijacking of an Air France jetliner that ended with the Israeli raid on the Entebbe airport in Uganda. Both Germans were killed.

In April 1977, Baader and the others were sentence to life. Six months later, Palestinian terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa airliner to Somalia and demanded the release of imprisoned Red Army Faction members. On October 17, West German commandos stormed the plane in Mogadishu, releasing the captives and killing the hijackers. The next day, Baader and three others were found shot in their jail cells, presumably suicides.

Red Army Faction violence continued until 1992, when the group officially called off its terrorist campaign. It was later discovered that the East German secret police had provided training, supplies, and protection to the Red Army Faction during the 1970s.
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1967-4-28
الملاكم العالمي محمد علي كلاي (وعمره وقتها 25 عاماً ) يرفض الخدمة في القوات الأمريكية التي تحتل فيتنام
تعقيب : تم حرمانه من لقبه في الملاكمة بسبب ذلك.
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1968-4-28
بدء أول بث تلفزيوني رسمي في الأردن بالأبيض والأسود (بدأ البث الملون في عام 1973 ).
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1969-4-28
استقالة الجنرال شارل ديجول رئيس فرنسا واعتزاله السياسة
وذلك عقب الاضطرابات الاجتماعية والطلابية التي شهدتها فرنسا عام 1968م. حكم ديجول فرنسا 11 عاما، ويعد أحد أبطال تحرير فرنسا من الاحتلال الألماني في الحرب العالمية الثانية، توفي عام 1970م.
De Gaulle resigns as leader of France

Following the defeat of his proposals for constitutional reform in a national referendum, Charles de Gaulle resigns as president of France.

A veteran of World War I, de Gaulle unsuccessfully petitioned his country to modernize its armed forces between the wars. After Henri Petain and other French leaders signed an armistice with Nazi Germany in June 1940, he fled to London, where he organized the Free French forces and rallied French colonies to the Allied cause. His forces fought successfully in North Africa, and in June 1944 he was named head of the French government in exile. On August 26, following the Allied invasion of France, de Gaulle entered Paris in triumph. Three months later, he was unanimously elected provisional president of France.

He resigned in January 1946, however, claiming he lacked sufficient governing power. De Gaulle formed a new political party that had only moderate electoral success, and in 1953 he retired. However, five years later, a military and civilian revolt in Algeria created a political crisis in France, and he was called out of retirement to lead the nation. A new constitution was passed, and in late December he was elected president of the Fifth Republic.

During the next decade, President de Gaulle granted independence to Algeria and attempted to restore France to its former international stature by withdrawing from the U.S.-dominated NATO alliance and promoting the development of French atomic weapons. However, student demonstrations and workers' strikes in 1968 eroded his popular support, and in 1969 his proposals for further constitutional reform were defeated in a national vote. On April 28, 1969, Charles de Gaulle, 79 years old, retired for good. He died the following year.
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1970-4-28
Nixon approves Cambodian incursion

President Richard Nixon gives his formal authorization to commit U.S. combat troops, in cooperation with South Vietnamese units, against communist troop sanctuaries in Cambodia.

Secretary of State William Rogers and Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, who had continually argued for a downsizing of the U.S. effort in Vietnam, were excluded from the decision to use U.S. troops in Cambodia. Gen. Earle Wheeler, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, cabled Gen. Creighton Abrams, senior U.S. commander in Saigon, informing him of the decision that a "higher authority has authorized certain military actions to protect U.S. forces operating in South Vietnam." Nixon believed that the operation was necessary as a pre-emptive strike to forestall North Vietnamese attacks from Cambodia into South Vietnam as the U.S. forces withdrew and the South Vietnamese assumed more responsibility for the fighting. Nevertheless, three National Security Council staff members and key aides to presidential assistant Henry Kissinger resigned in protest over what amounted to an invasion of Cambodia.

When Nixon publicly announced the Cambodian incursion on April 30, it set off a wave of antiwar demonstrations. A protest at Kent State University resulted in the killing of four students by Army National Guard troops. Another student rally at Jackson State College in Mississippi resulted in the death of two students and 12 wounded when police opened fire on a women's dormitory. The incursion angered many in Congress, who felt that Nixon was illegally widening the war; this resulted in a series of congressional resolutions and legislative initiatives that would severely limit the executive power of the president.
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1972-4-28
North Vietnamese press South Vietnamese at Hue and Kontum

The North Vietnamese offensive continues as Fire Base Bastogne, 20 miles west of Hue, falls to the communists. Fire Base Birmingham, 4 miles to the east, was also under heavy attack. As fighting intensified all across the northern province of South Vietnam, much of Hue's civilian population tried to escape south to Da Nang. Farther south in the Central Highlands, 20,000 North Vietnamese troops converged on Kontum, encircling it and cutting it off. Only 65 miles north of Saigon, An Loc lay under siege and continued to take a pummeling from North Vietnamese artillery, rockets, and ground attacks. To the American command in Saigon, it appeared that South Vietnam was on the verge of total defeat by the North Vietnamese, but the South Vietnamese were able to hold out.

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1977-4-28
في ألمانيا : انتهاء محاكمة تنظيم (بادر ماينهوف ) الشيوعي
Red Army Faction trial ends

In Stuttgart, West Germany, the lengthy trial of the leaders of the terrorist Baader-Meinhof Gang, also known as the Red Army Faction, ends with Andreas Baader, Gudrun Ensslin, and Jan-Carl Raspe being found guilty of four counts of murder and more than 30 counts of attempted murder. Each defendant was sentenced to life imprisonment, Germany's most severe punishment.

The Red Army Faction was founded by ultra-left revolutionaries Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof in 1968. Advocating communist revolution in West Germany, the group employed terrorist tactics against government, military, and corporate leaders in an effort to topple capitalism in their homeland. Baader was imprisoned in 1970 but escaped, and Meinhof was captured in 1972. In 1976, Baader was recaptured, and Meinhof hanged herself in her cell.

During the trial of Baader and his associates, the few Red Army Faction members still at large continued their program of violence and assassination. In 1976, two Baader-Meinhof guerrillas took part in the Palestinian hijacking of an Air France jetliner that ended with the Israeli raid on the Entebbe airport in Uganda. Both Germans were killed.

In April 1977, Baader and the others were sentence to life. Six months later, Palestinian terrorists hijacked a Lufthansa airliner to Somalia and demanded the release of imprisoned Red Army Faction members. On October 17, West German commandos stormed the plane in Mogadishu, releasing the captives and killing the hijackers. The next day, Baader and three others were found shot in their jail cells, presumably suicides.

Red Army Faction violence continued until 1992, when the group officially called off its terrorist campaign. It was later discovered that the East German secret police had provided training, supplies, and protection to the Red Army Faction during the 1970s.


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1978-4-28
مقتل الرئيس الأفغاني محمد داود (من مواليد 1909) وجميع أفراد أسرته بأيدي الشيوعيين الذين أطاحوا به في انقلاب عسكري.
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1981-4-28
بداية ( أزمة الصواريخ السورية في لبنان) بين سوريا وإسرائيل.
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1982-4-28
ابتكار اليابان تليفون الجيب
قامت اليابان بابتكار تليفون محمول يمكن وضعه في الجيب، وقد أحدث اختراع الهاتف نقلة هائلة في تاريخ البشر، حتى أن بعض الناس أصيبوا في أيامه الأولى بالرعب لظنهم أن من يتحدث على الطرف الآخر ليس بشراً بل جنياً.
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1986-4-28
أعلن الاتحاد السوفيتي عن وقوع حادث في (مفاعل تشيرنوبل للطاقة النووية)
وقد ذكر تقرير لوكالة الأنباء الرسمية تاس أن هناك مصابين ولكنها لم تقدم تفاصيل دقيقة حول الحادث.
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1992-4-28
تسلم المجلس الانتقالي للمجاهدين الافغان برئاسة ( صبغة الله مجددي) السلطة رسميا في كابول من الحكومة الافغانية السابقة.
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1992-4-28
اعلان تأسيس يوغسلافيا الاتحادية من جمهوريتي الصرب والجبل الاسود على أنقاض يوغسلافيا الاشتراكية الاتحادية.
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1992-4-28 موت الامير الحسن الرضا ولي عهد ليبيا السابق في لندن.
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1992-4-28
وفاة الدكتور (عبد العزيز القوصي) من رواد علم النفس بمصر
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1992-4-28
موت الرسام البريطاني (فرانسيس بيكون) عن 83 عاما في مدريد.
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1995-4-28
انجار خط ماسورة الغاز في كوريا الجنوبية
Gas pipe explodes in South Korea
A gas explosion beneath a busy city street in Taegu, South Korea, kills more than 100 people on this day in 1995. Sixty children, some on their way to school, were among the victims of the blast.

Taegu was a city of 2.2 million people, located about 150 miles south of Seoul. At the time of the explosion, an underground railroad was being constructed beneath the city streets. Metal sheets were put down in place of asphalt to cover holes in certain sections of downtown roads during the construction.

At about 7:30 a.m., during a busy rush hour, a large explosion rumbled beneath the streets, blasting the metal sheets high into the air. Flames shot out from underground, some 150 feet high, throughout a 300-yard area. Cars were transformed into fireballs and one was reported to have been thrown 30 feet into the air. Some pedestrians in the area were enveloped by fire; others further away were blown to the ground. Flaming debris hit people up to half of a mile away. The final death toll was 110, with hundreds injured. Rescue efforts were impeded by broken water mains that flooded the area in the aftermath.

The precise cause of the explosion remains a mystery. Some believe that the gas pipe was accidentally hit by the railroad construction, while others argue that something must have sparked an existing leak.
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1996-4-28
(مذبحة بورت آرثر ) في استراليا
Port Arthur Massacre in Australia
On this day in 1996, 28-year-old Martin Bryant begins a killing spree that ends in the deaths of 35 men, women and children in the quiet town of Port Arthur in Tasmania, Australia.

Bryant, who is believed to have an extremely low IQ and may be mentally handicapped, began the day by killing an elderly couple who were the owners of Port Arthur's Seascape guesthouse. Some theorize that the killings were Bryant's retaliation for the owners refusing to sell his father the guesthouse. Bryant's father later committed suicide, an action Bryant is said to have blamed on his depression over not being able to buy the property.

After having lunch on the deck of the Broad Arrow Cafe, located at the site of the historic Port Arthur prison colony, a tourist destination, Bryant entered the restaurant, removed an automatic rifle from his bag, and began shooting. After killing 22 people in rapid succession, Bryant left the restaurant for the parking lot, where he continued his shooting spree, killing the drivers of two tour buses, some of their passengers and a mother and her two small children, among others.

On his way out of the parking lot, he shot four people in a BMW and drove the car to a nearby gas station, where he shot one woman and took a man hostage, before driving back to the Seascape guesthouse. After an 18-hour stand-off with police, Bryant set the guesthouse on fire, ran outside and was captured. He had apparently killed the hostage sometime earlier.

Bryant initially pled not-guilty to the 35 murders, but changed his plea and was sentenced to life in prison, never to be released, Australia's maximum sentence. The Broad Arrow Cafe and its environs were turned into a place for reflection and a memorial.

People across Australia and the world were horrified by Bryant's actions. In the hopes of preventing similar crimes, gun-control laws in many areas of Australia were significantly strengthened in the aftermath of the tragedy.
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أحداث28 أبريل نيسان



2001-4-28
منح الهيئة العامة للاستثمار الترخيص لكونسرتيوم امريكي المكون من اربع شركات لبدء نشاطهم في بناء وتمويل المشروعات التعليمية بالمملكة بقيمة اجمالية تقدر بـ13 مليار ريال لبناء 3000 مدرسة في المملكة بنظام (بي.او.تي).
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2003-4-28
اعلان الاميرال ديفيد نيكولز مساعد قائد القوات الجوية الامريكية في السعودية انتقال المقر الاقليمي لقيادة القوات الجوية الامريكية في الخليج من (قاعدة الامير سلطان بالسعودية) الى قطر.
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2004-4-28
انكشاف فضيحة تعذيب الأسرى العراقيين بسجن أبو غريب؛ حيث قامت محطة سي بي إس الأمريكية بنشر صور التقطت بسجن أبو غريب أواخر عام 2003 تكشف ممارسات غير إنسانية بحق الأسرى.



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