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مُساهمةموضوع: أحداث 1 أبريل   أحداث 1 أبريل Icon_minitimeالأربعاء نوفمبر 03, 2010 6:25 pm

أحداث أول أبريل

27-6-463هـ
1-4-1071
وفاة أبي الوليد أحمد بن عبد الله بن أحمد المعروف بـ"ابن زيدون" الشاعر الأندلسي الكبير
ولد في قرطبة ونشأ بها، وتولى الوزارة أكثر من مرة، له ديوان شعر، ورسائل أدبية
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8-4-825هـ
1-4-1422
تولِّي السلطان "برسباي" عرش دولة المماليك، وهو السلطان الثاني والثلاثون في ترتيب سلاطين دولة المماليك، ويُعدّ من عظام سلاطين الدولة المملوكية، وعلى يديه فُتحت قبرص

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17-11-979هـ
1-4-1572
بدء حرب الاستقلال الهولندية عن أسبانيا
اتخذت الثورة شعارها اللون البرتقالي نظراً لشيوع زراعة البرتقال في المناطق التي بدأ فيها تمرد الهولنديين علي الأسبان
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23-1-986هـ
1-4-1578
مولد طبيب التشريح الإنجليزي وليم هارفي ).
وإليه يُعزى اكتشاف الدورة الدموية السنة 1628، بعد نشره كتابه عن حركات القلب والدم، ويقع في 76 صفحة.
توفي عام 1657م
والحقيقة التي تؤكدها كتب تاريخ العلوم أن اكتشاف الرجل لم يكن سوى ما توصل إليه العالم العربي ابن النفيس قبله بقرون عدة.
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1-4-1621



The Pilgrim-Wampanoag peace treaty


At the Plymouth settlement in present-day Massachusetts, the leaders of the Plymouth colonists, acting on behalf of King James I, make a defensive alliance with Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoags. The agreement, in which both parties promised to not "doe hurt" to one another, was the first treaty between a Native American tribe and a group of American colonists. According to the treaty, if a Wampanoag broke the peace, he would be sent to Plymouth for punishment; if a colonist broke the law, he would likewise be sent to the Wampanoags


.


In November 1620, the Mayflower arrived in the New World, carrying 101 English settlers, commonly known as the pilgrims. The majority of the pilgrims were Puritan Separatists, who traveled to America to escape the jurisdiction of the Church of England, which they believed violated the biblical precepts of true Christians. After coming to anchor in what is today Provincetown harbor in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts, a party of armed men under the command of Captain Myles Standish was sent to explore the immediate area and find a location suitable for settlement. In December, the explorers went ashore in Plymouth, where they found cleared fields and plentiful running water; a few days later the Mayflower came to anchor in Plymouth harbor, and settlement began


.


The first direct contact with a Native American was made in March 1621, and soon after, Chief Massasoit paid a visit to the settlement. After an exchange of greetings and gifts, the two peoples signed a peace treaty that lasted for more than 50 years


.
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26-7-1037هـ
1-4-1628
اعلان الطبيب وعالم التشريح الإنجليزي ( وليم هارفي) اكتشافه الدورة الدموية في جسم الإنسان
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2-10-1043هـ
1-4-1634
أول اشارة إلى محطة عربات الأجرة التي تجرها الخيل
ـ وهي محطة سيارات التاكسي، فقدأوقف أحد مالكي العربات أربعاً من عرباته في أحد أركان مدينة لندن، ونسج على منواله حوالي " دزينة" من سائقي العربات الأخرى. فقد كانت تُنشر كراريس تهاجم بعنف العربات، زاعمة أن الضجة التي تحدثها تهزّالنوافذ، وتفسد البيرة، والمزر، والنبيذ، وتتدخل في ممارسة الدين بإغراقها عظة الكهنة
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1-4-1789




First U.S. House of Representatives elects speaker
On this day in 1789, the first U.S. House of Representatives, meeting in New York City, reaches quorum and elects Pennsylvania Representative Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg as its first speaker



.


Muhlenberg, a Lutheran minister and the former president of the Pennsylvania convention to ratify the U.S. Constitution, was the son of Henry Augustus Muhlenberg and grandson of Johann Conrad Weiser, two of the leading Germans in colonial Pennsylvania. His brother, Major General John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, also served in the first House of Representatives


.


Like his father, Frederick Muhlenberg studied theology at Germany’s University of Halle. He returned to Pennsylvania to be ordained in 1770 at the age of 20 and preached in Stouchsburg and Lebanon until 1774. Muhlenberg began preaching in New York City later that year, but returned to Pennsylvania upon the British invasion of New York in 1776. For three years, he served as pastor to congregations in New Hanover, Oley and New Goshenhoppen before embarking on a political career


.


Muhlenberg was a member of the Continental Congress from 1779 to 1780 and speaker of Pennsylvania’s House of Representatives from 1780 to 1783. He presided over the Pennsylvania ratifying convention of 1787, and then served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1789 to 1797. He was speaker during the first and third Congresses


.


Frederick did not enter into military service during the American Revolution. His brother, John Peter, however, earned renown for removing his pastoral robes to reveal a military uniform underneath while proclaiming his support for the war from his pulpit in Virginia


.
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19-8-1207هـ
1-4-1793
ثار بركان أونزن باليابان ليخلف أكثر من 35 ألف قتيل، وقد أدت ثورات هذا البركان المتتالية إلى تكوين جبل بركاني في شبه جزيرة شيمابارا اليابانية شرق مدينة ناجازاكي التي تعرضت للقصف بثاني قنبلة ذرية في تاريخ البشرية على يد الأمريكيين في ختام الحرب العالمية الثانية.
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20-4-1230هـ
1-4-1815
مولد السياسى الألمانى الداهية (أوتوفون بسمارك) بمملكة بروسيا
ينتمي إلي عائلة أرستقراطية وتزعم حركة توحيد ألمانيا
و لعب دورا كبيراً في تشكيل الإمبراطورية الألمانية الثانية الرايخ الثاني. ظلّ مستشاراً لألمانيا طيلة 18 عاماً.
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1-4-1864




First travel insurance policy sold



Consumer advocate Ralph Nader holds a press conference to introduce demands for a congressional clean up in the wake of the house bankingscandalJames Batterson made history on this day in 1864 by purchasing the very first travel insurance policy. The policy, issued by industry stalwart, the Travelers Insurance Company, seemingly sold Batterson on the benefits of insurance coverage: three months later he purchased Travelers' very first general insurance plan


.
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1-4-1865




Battle of Five Forks


Confederate General Robert E. Lee's supply line into Petersburg, Virginia, is closed when Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant collapse the end of Lee's lines around Petersburg. The Confederates suffer heavy casualties, and the battle triggered Lee's retreat from Petersburg as the two armies began a race that would end a week later at Appomattox Court House


.


For nearly a year, Grant had laid siege to Lee's army in an elaborate network of trenches that ran from Petersburg to the Confederate capital at Richmond, 25 miles north. Lee's hungry army slowly dwindled through the winter of 1864-65 as Grant's army swelled with well-fed reinforcements. On March 25, Lee attacked part of the Union trenches at Fort Stedman in a desperate attempt to break the siege and split Grant's force. When that attack failed, Grant began mobilizing his forces along the entire 40-mile front. Southwest of Petersburg, Grant sent General Philip Sheridan against Lee's right flank


.


Sheridan moved forward on March 31, but the tough Confederates halted his advance. Sheridan moved troops to cut the railroad that ran from the southwest into Petersburg, but the focus of the battle became Five Forks, a road intersection that provided the key to Lee's supply line. Lee instructed his commander there, General George Pickett, to "Hold Five Forks at all hazards." On April 1, Sheridan's men slammed into Pickett's troops. Pickett had his force poorly positioned, and he was taking a long lunch with his staff when the attack occurred. General Gouverneur K. Warren's V Corps supported Sheridan, and the 27,000 Yankee troops soon crushed Pickett's command of 10,000. The Union lost 1,000 casualties, but nearly 5,000 of Pickett's men were killed, wounded, or captured. During the battle, Sheridan, with the approval of Grant, removed Warren from command despite Warren's effective deployment of his troops. It appears that a long-simmering feud between the two was the cause, but Warren was not officially cleared of any wrongdoing by a court of inquiry until 1882


.


The vital intersection was in Union hands, and Lee's supply line was cut. Grant now attacked all along the Petersburg-Richmond front and Lee evacuated the cities. The two armies began a race west, but Lee could not outrun Grant. The Confederate leader surrendered at Appomattox Court House on April 9


.
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7-12-1284هـ
1-4-1868
الدولة العثمانية تشكل "مجلس شورى الدولة"، في إطار خطة العثمانية بالإصلاح الإداري للدولة وتحديثها، واعتنى هذا المجلس بأمور الدولة الإدارية.
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7-12-1284هـ
1-4-1868
مولد الأديب الفرنسي ادموند روستان

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1-4-1877




Discoverer of Tombstone begins prospecting


Ignoring the taunts of fellow miners who say he will only find his own tombstone, prospector Edward Schieffelin begins his search for silver in the area of present-day southern Arizona. Later that year, Schieffelin was not only alive and well, but he had found one of the richest silver veins in the West. He named it the Tombstone Lode


.


Located about 70 miles southeast of Tucson in the San Pedro Valley, the Tombstone Mining District and the town of Tombstone quickly became major economic and social centers of the Southwest. Schieffelin and his partners were able to attract vast amounts of eastern investment capital to develop their claims. Quickly making their fortunes, the original partners sold out in 1880-81 and left Arizona for more civilized locales


.


Tombstone, however, continued to boom. By 1881, more than 10,000 people lived in the region and Tombstone had become the seat of the newly created Cochise County. The Wild West spirit of the town and large amounts of money attracted gamblers, criminals, and would-be lawmen. Of these, Doc Holliday and the Earp brothers are the most famous today, because of their brief shoot-out with the Clantons and McLaurys at the O.K. Corral in 1881. Tombstone was home to scores of other gamblers and gunslingers, though, including John Ringo, William C. Brocius, and Frank Leslie


.


So much violence and lawlessness marked the early years of Tombstone's history that President Chester Arthur briefly considered imposing martial law in May 1882. Upstanding civic leaders like the rancher John Slaughter worked to promote law, order, and civic growth. The wild boom days in Tombstone, however, soon waned of their own accord when miners struck groundwater, which made it too expensive to dig any deeper. By the early 1890s, most of the mines had closed and the town went into decline


.


Mining resumed sporadically at Tombstone during subsequent decades, but the town never regained its former glory. By 1929, Tombstone seemed to be headed for ghost town status, and the county seat moved to Bisbee. Ironically, the very gambling and violence that growth-minded town fathers once tried to suppress became its economic savior. In the post-World War II years, the people of Tombstone began to cater to the American fascination with the Wild West. Museums and the restoration of the O.K. Corral made Tombstone into a tourist destination, leading some to call it the town that is "too tough to die


."
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9-4-1296هـ
1-4-1879
بدء الخدمات البريدية في الكويت تحت اشراف ادارة البريد الهندية حتى عام 1904 عندما طلب الشيخ مبارك الصباح من الحكومة البريطانية العمل على تأسيس مكتب للبريد في الكويت.
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1-12-1317هـ
1-4-1900
تعيين الأمير جورج أميراً ملكياً على جزيرة كريت
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3-1-1321هـ
1-4-1903
افتتاح المؤتمر الدولي للمؤرخين
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14-1-1322هـ
1-4-1904
دخول الملك عبد العزيز آل سعود عنيزة
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7-2-1324هـ
1-4-1906
انتصار الملك عبد العزيز آل سعود في موقعة روضة مهنا
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5-5-1332هـ
1-4-1914
تشكيل أول حكومة مدنية في إقليم بنما في أمريكا اللاتينية.
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19-6-1336هـ
1-4-1918
تأسيس سلاح الجو الملكي البريطاني
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19-6-1336هـ
1-4-1918
مولد الاداري المصري (مشهور أحمد مشهور) بمنيا القمح بمحافظة الشرقية بمصر
قام بدور أساسي نحو تنفيذ أوامر جمال للسيطرة المصرية علي قناة السويس ليلة تأميمها ثم صار رئيس مجلس إدارة هيئة قناة السويس 00 تولى مهمة تطوير قناة السويس بعد حرب أكتوبر 73 .. عمل رئيسا لمجلس بحوث النقل والاتصالات باكاديمية البحث العلمى .. رئيس الجمعية الاقتصادية اليابانية. نال عدة أوسمة من مصر ودول العالم ، أحيل إلى التقاعد فى 31-12-1983
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1-4-1918




RAF founded


On April 1, 1918, the Royal Air Force (RAF) is formed with the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) and the Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS). The RAF took its place beside the British navy and army as a separate military service with its own ministry


.


In April 1911, eight years after Americans Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first flight of a self- propelled, heavier-than-air aircraft, an air battalion of the British army's Royal Engineers was formed at Larkhill in Wiltshire. The battalion consisted of aircraft, airship, balloon, and man-carrying kite companies. In December 1911, the British navy formed the Royal Naval Flying School at Eastchurch, Kent. In May 1912, both were absorbed into the newly created Royal Flying Corps, which established a new flying school at Upavon, Wiltshire, and formed new airplane squadrons. In July 1914, the specialized requirements of the navy led to the creation of RNAS


.


One month later, on August 4, Britain declared war on Germany and entered World War I. At the time, the RFC had 84 aircraft, and the RNAS had 71 aircraft and seven airships. Later that month, four RFC squadrons were deployed to France to support the British Expeditionary Force. During the next two years, Germany took the lead in air strategy with technologies like the manual machine gun, and England suffered bombing raids and frustration in the skies against German flying aces such as Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron." Repeated German air raids led British military planners to push for the creation of a separate air ministry, which would carry out strategic bombing against Germany. On April 1, 1918, the RAF was formed along with a female branch of the service, the Women's Royal Air Force. That day, Bristol F.2B fighters of the 22nd Squadron carried out the first official missions of the RAF


.


By the war's end, in November 1918, the RAF had gained air superiority along the western front. The strength of the RAF in November 1918 was nearly 300,000 officers and airmen, and more than 22,000 aircraft. At the outbreak of World War II, in September 1939, the operational strength of the RAF in Europe had diminished to about 2,000 aircraft


.


In June 1940, the Western democracies of continental Europe fell to Germany one by one, leaving Britain alone in its resistance to Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler planned an invasion of Britain and in July 1940 ordered his powerful air force--the Luftwaffe--to destroy British ports along the coast in preparation. The outnumbered RAF fliers put up a fierce resistance in the opening weeks of the Battle of Britain, leading the Luftwaffe commanders to place destruction of the British air fleet at the forefront of the German offensive. If the Germans succeeded in wiping out the RAF, they could begin their invasion as scheduled in the fall


.


During the next three months, however, the RAF successfully resisted the massive German air invasion, relying on radar technology, more maneuverable aircraft, and exceptional bravery. For every British plane shot down, two Luftwaffe warplanes were destroyed. In October, Hitler delayed the German invasion indefinitely, and in May 1941 the Battle of Britain came to an end. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill said of the RAF pilots, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few


."


By the war's end in 1945, the strength of the RAF was nearly one million personnel. Later, this number was reduced and stabilized at about 150,000 men and women


.
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14-8-1341هـ
1-4-1923
صدور اول مجموعة طوابع باسم الكويت بعد ان تم طبع كلمة " كويت " على الطوابع الهندية المراد استعمالها في الكويت لتطرح للبيع للاستعمال العام ومن هذا التاريخ اصبح للكويت طوابع خاصة بها وتحمل اسمها وتكونت المجموعة من 15 طابعا من فئة آنة الى 10 روبيات .
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25-8-1342هـ
1-4-1924
الحكم علي هتلر وبعض أعوانه بالسجن بعد فشلهم في إحداث انقلاب
وقد خرج هتلر من السجن بشعبية طاغية وقاد الحزب النازي للفوز بمنصب المستشار سنة 1933





Hitler sent to Landsberg jail


In Germany, Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler is sentenced to five years in prison for leading the Nazis' unsuccessful "Beer Hall Putsch" in the German state of Bavaria


.


In the early 1920s, the ranks of Hitler's Nazi Party swelled with resentful Germans who sympathized with the party's bitter hatred of Germany's democratic government, leftist politics, and Jews


.




In November 1923, after the German government resumed the payment of war reparations to Britain and France, the Nazis launched the "Beer Hall Putsch"--their first attempt at seizing the German government by force.

Hitler hoped that his nationalist revolution in Bavaria would spread to the dissatisfied German army, which in turn would bring down the government in Berlin. However, the uprising was immediately suppressed, and Hitler was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison for high treason


.


Sent to Landsberg jail, he spent his time dictating his autobiography, Mein Kampf, and working on his oratorical skills. After nine months in prison, political pressure from supporters of the Nazi Party forced his release. During the next few years, Hitler and the other leading Nazis reorganized their party as a fanatical mass movement that was able to gain a majority in the German parliament--the Reichstag--by legal means in 1932. In the same year, President Paul von Hindenburg defeated a presidential bid by Hitler, but in January 1933 he appointed Hitler chancellor, hoping that the powerful Nazi leader could be brought to heel as a member of the president's cabinet


.


However, Hindenburg underestimated Hitler's political audacity, and one of the new chancellor's first acts was to use the burning of the Reichstag building as a pretext for calling general elections. The police under Nazi Hermann Goering suppressed much of the party's opposition before the election, and the Nazis won a bare majority. Shortly after, Hitler took on absolute power through the Enabling Acts. In 1934, Hindenburg died and the last remnants of Germany's democratic government were dismantled, leaving Hitler the sole master of a nation intent on war and genocide


.
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1-4-1924




Beer Hall Putsch secures Hitler's rise to power


Adolf Hitler is sentenced for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch of November 8, 1923. The attempted coup in Munich by right-wing members of the army and the Nazi Party was foiled by the government, and Hitler was charged with high treason. Despite his conviction, Hitler was out of jail before the end of the year, with his political position stronger than ever


.


Germany was in the midst of a national crisis in the early 1920s. After World War I, its economy was in shambles, and hyperinflation caused widespread discontent. Hitler and the Nazis stepped into this breach with often-racist demagoguery that attracted a significant following throughout the nation


.


The failed coup turned out to be quite a boon for Adolf Hitler. His trial brought him more attention and publicity than ever before. With a crowd of thousands-including press from around the world- watching the proceedings, Hitler made the most of this opportunity by going on the offensive


.


Taking every chance to turn the subject away from the putsch itself, Hitler frequently made speeches about Germany's postwar plight. He blamed the Jews, Marxism, and France for all of the country's problems, repeatedly returning to his theme of hypernationalism. The conservative-leaning judges did nothing to stop Hitler or keep the focus on the attempted coup. The prosecutors, who had been threatened by Hitler's student followers, shrank from challenging the defendant


.


It soon became evident that Hitler was winning the public relations battle by using the 25-day trial as a showcase for his extreme right-wing views, even if he was technically losing the case. In his closing argument, Hitler declared that he would ignore the court's verdict because the "Eternal Court of History" would acquit him


.


After his conviction, Hitler spent the remainder of the year in prison writing the first volume of Mein Kampf. By the time he was released, he had become more popular than ever, and within eight years he had taken over Germany


.



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7-9-1343هـ
1-4-1925
صدور أول طبعة من كتاب الشيخ علي عبد الرازق ( الإسلام وأصول الحكم)
وقد صدرت بالمنصورة
وكانت تهدف لاحباط محاولة ملك مصر أحمد فؤاد الثاني تنصيب نفسه خليفة بعد إلغاء الخلافة بتركيا كنتيجة لانهيار الدولة العثمانية
وقد عاقب الأزهر المذكور بسحب درجة العالمية منه لكنه أعادها إليه مرة ثانية قبل وفاته
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12-11-1349هـ
1-4-1931?
انتهاء حرب اسبانيا
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16-12-1352هـ
1-4-1934
دخول التيار الكهربائي الى الكويت لأول مرة من خلال شركة كهرباء الكويت والتى كانت تبيع انتاجها من الكهرباء الذى لم يكن يتجاوز 200 كيلو واط على المواطنين بأسعار عالية ونظرا لخسائر الشركة تم تأميمها من قبل الحكومة في عام 1951 حيث تم انشاء دائرة للكهرباء .
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1-4-1972




North Vietnamese launch Nguyen Hue Offensive


Following three days of the heaviest artillery and rocket bombardment of the war, between 12,000 and 15,000 soldiers of Hanoi's 304th Division--supported by tanks, artillery, and antiaircraft units equipped with surface-to-air missiles--sweep across the Demilitarized Zone. They routed the South Vietnamese 3rd Division and drove them toward their rear bases


.


This attack was the opening move of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120,000 troops and approximately 1,200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south


.


North Vietnam had a number of objectives in launching the offensive: impressing the communist world and its own people with its determination; capitalizing on U.S. antiwar sentiment and possibly hurting President Richard Nixon's chances for re-election; proving that "Vietnamization" was a failure; damaging the South Vietnamese forces and government stability; gaining as much territory as possible before a possible truce; and accelerating negotiations on their own terms


.


Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the South Vietnamese suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of U.S. advisors and American airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces


.
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8-1-1355
1-4-1936
تأسيس الإذاعة الفلسطينية
تعتبر من أولى الإذاعات في الوطن العربي.
وكان رئيس القسم العربي فيها الشاعر إبراهيم طوقان (1905 - 1941 )،
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11-2-1358هـ
1-4-1939?
انتهاء حرب اسبانيا
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4-3-1360هـ
1-4-1941
نجاح الزعيم العراقي رشيد عالي الكيلاني في الاستيلاء على الحكم في العراق وتحييد الحكم الملكي الموالي للإنجليز.



أقدمت بريطانيا على تقديم رسالة شديدة اللهجة للحكومة العراقية، تعبر فيها عن عدم ثقتها في وزارة الكيلاني، وأنه ما لم تشكل حكومة بدونه فإن العلاقات بين الدولتين ستتعرض إلى التدهور، فاستجاب الوصي على العرش الأمير عبد الإله بن علي بن الحسين لهذا التهديد وطلب من الكيلاني تقديم استقالته، فاستقال في (2 من المحرم سنة 1360هـ= 30 من يناير 1941م


).
تلقى الجيش والشعب هذا النبأ بحزن شديد، واشتعلت المظاهرات المؤيدة له، وقام بعض قادة الجيش بانقلاب في (14 -3-1360هـ=11-4- 1941)؟؟ ضد الأمير عبد الإله بن علي بن الحسين الوصي على العرش الذي هرب إلى إحدى السفن البريطانية، وتم إسقاط حكومة طه الهاشمي، وسيطر الجيش على المرافق العامة، وأعلن في اجتماع المجلس النيابي تنصيب وصي جديد للعرش بدلا من عبد الإله الهارب، وألفت حكومة دفاع وطني برئاسة رشيد الكيلاني وعضوية ناجي السويدي وعلي محمود الشيخ، ومحمد علي محمود وغيرهم.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
1-4-1946




Alaskan earthquake triggers massive tsunami


On this day in 1946, an undersea earthquake off the Alaskan coast triggers a massive tsunami that kills 159 people in Hawaii


.


In the middle of the night, 13,000 feet beneath the ocean surface, a 7.4-magnitude tremor was recorded in the North Pacific. (The nearest land was Unimak Island, part of the Aleutian chain.) The quake triggered devastating tidal waves throughout the Pacific, particularly in Hawaii


.


Unimak Island was hit by the tsunami shortly after the quake. An enormous wave estimated at nearly 100 feet high crashed onto the shore. A lighthouse located 30 feet above sea level, where five people lived, was smashed to pieces by the wave; all five were killed instantly. Meanwhile, the wave was heading toward the southern Pacific at 500 miles per hour


.


In Hawaii, 2,400 miles south of the quake’s epicenter, Captain Wickland of the United States Navy was the first to spot the coming wave at about 7 a.m., four-and-a-half hours after the quake. His position on the bridge of a ship, 46 feet above sea level, put him at eye level with a “monster wave” that he described as two miles long


.


As the first wave came in and receded, the water in Hawaii’s Hilo Bay seemed to disappear. Boats were left on the sea floor next to flopping fish. Then, the massive tsunami struck. In the city of Hilo, a 32-foot wave devastated the town, completely destroying almost a third of the city. The bridge crossing the Wailuku River was picked up by the wave and pushed 300 feet away. In Hilo, 96 people lost their lives


.


On other parts of the island of Hawaii, waves reached as high as 60 feet. A schoolhouse in Laupahoehoe was crushed by the tsunami, killing the teacher and 25 students inside. The massive wave was seen as far away as Chile, where, 18 hours after the quake near Alaska, unusually large waves crashed ashore. There were no casualties


.


This tsunami prompted the U.S. to establish the Seismic SeaWave Warning System two years later. The system, now known as the Pacific Tsunami Warning System, uses undersea buoys throughout the ocean, in combination with seismic-activity detectors, to find possible killer waves. The warning system was used for the first time on November 4, 1952. That day, an evacuation was successfully carried out, but the expected wave never materialized
------------------------------------------------------
1-4-1945



U.S. troops land on Okinawa


On this day in 1945, after suffering the loss of 116 planes and damage to three aircraft carriers, 50,000 U.S. combat troops of the 10th Army, under the command of Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner Jr., land on the southwest coast of the Japanese island of Okinawa, 350 miles south of Kyushu, the southern main island of Japan


.


Determined to seize Okinawa as a base of operations for the army ground and air forces for a later assault on mainland Japan, more than 1,300 ships converged on the island, finally putting ashore 50,000 combat troops on April 1. The Americans quickly seized two airfields and advanced inland to cut the island's waist. They battled nearly 120,000 Japanese army, militia, and labor troops under the command of Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima


.


The Japanese surprised the American forces with a change in strategy, drawing them into the mainland rather than confronting them at the water's edge. While Americans landed without loss of men, they would suffer more than 50,000 casualties, including more than 12,000 deaths, as the Japanese staged a desperate defense of the island, a defense that included waves of kamikaze ("divine wind") air attacks. Eventually, these suicide raids proved counterproductive, as the Japanese finally ran out of planes and resolve, with some 4,000 finally surrendering. Japanese casualties numbered some 117,000


.


Lieutenant Buckner, son of a Civil War general, was among the casualties, killed by enemy artillery fire just three days before the Japanese surrender. Japanese General Ushijima committed ritual suicide upon defeat of his forces


.


The 1952 film Okinawa starring Pat O'Brien, is one of several movies to depict this decisive episode in the history of the war


.

---------------------------------------------
9-5-1366هـ
1-4-1947
موت الملك ( جورج الثاني ) ملك اليونان الذي تولى عرش اليونان مرتين
الأولى من عام 1922 إلى عام 1923
والثانية من عام 1935 حتى عام 1947م.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
21-5-1367هـ
1-4-1948
بدء تطبيق خطة مارشال لاعادة اعمار اوروبا
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1-4-1948




Soviets stop U.S. and British military trains


On this day, Soviet troops stop U.S. and British military trains traveling through the Russian zone of occupation in Germany and demand that they be allowed to search the trains. British and U.S. officials refused the Soviet demand, and the problems associated with the Soviet, British, and U.S. occupation of Germany grew steadily more serious in the following months


.


Soviet and U.S. differences over the post-World War II fate of Germany began even before the war ended in 1945. The Soviets were determined that Germany would never again pose a military threat to Russia and they also demanded huge postwar reparations. The United States shared the Soviet concern about German rearmament, but as the Cold War began to develop, American officials realized that a revitalized Germany might act as a bulwark against possible Soviet expansion into Western Europe. When Germany surrendered in 1945, it was divided into British, American, Russian (and, eventually, French) zones of occupation. Berlin was located within the Russian sector, but the city itself was also divided into occupation zones


.


As it became clear during 1946 and 1947 that the United States, acting with the British and French, were determined to economically revitalize and militarily rearm Western Germany, tensions with the Soviet Union began to mount. On April 1, 1948, Soviet troops began stopping U.S. and British military trains traveling through the Russian sector to and from Berlin. Both the British and American governments responded with indignant letters of reproach to the Soviet Union. Eventually, the stoppages ceased, but in June 1948 the Soviets began a full-scale blockade of all ground travel to and from the U.S.-British-French sectors of Berlin. Thus began the Berlin Blockade, which was only broken when U.S. aircraft carried out the amazing task of flying and dropping supplies into Berlin. Germany remained a major Cold War battlefield throughout the 1950s and 1960s


.
--------------------------------------------
21-5-1367هـ
1-4-1948
بدء المعارك بين اليهود والعرب من أجل الاستيلاء على المدن والقرى التي تركتها القوات البريطانية وضمان السيطرة على الطرق المؤدية إلى القدس.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
21-5-1367هـ
1-4-1948
بدء تنفيذ مشروع "مارشال" لتعمير أوروبا الذي أعلنه وزير الخارجية الأمريكية جون مارشال ، وفيه التزمت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية بتنفيذ خطة للإعمار في دول أوروبا التي دمرتها الحرب العالمية الثانية.
وكان حجم المشروع 5 مليار دولار لاغير
------------------------------------------------------------------------
13-6-1369هـ
1-4-1950
الأمم المتحدة تقرر تقسيم القدس إلى قدس شرقية، وقدس غربية تتبع إسرائيل.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
24-6-1370هـ
1-4-1951
إعلان إسرائيل عن تأسيس جهاز الاستخبارات الخارجية "موساد" بقرار من رئيس الوزراء دافيد بن جوريون
وكان أول مدير للجهاز هو روبين شيلوح من مواليد عام 1905م
------------------------------------------------------------------------
30-8-1376هـ
1-4-1957
اجراء أول تعداد رسمي للسكان في دولة الكويت حيث بلغ عدد السكان مائتين وستة آلاف نسمة.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
30-8-1376هـ
1-4-1957
تأسيس شركة ناقلات النفط الكويتية برأسمال كله من القطاع الخاص وأخذت تمارس عملها فى نقل النفط الى السوق العالمية حتى عام 1976 عندما دخلت الدولة كشريك فيها بنسبة 49 في المئة وفي عام 1979 ارتأت الدولة ضرورة تملك الشركة بالكامل بعد أن وضعت كامل سيطرتها على ثرواتها النفطية .وكانت أول ناقلة نفط تسلمتها الشركة هى الناقلة " كاظمة " والتى تم بنائها فى اليابان وذلك بتاريخ 15 مايو 1959 بحمولة 46 ألف طن .
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15-10-1380هـ
1-4-1961
الملك سعود بن عبدالعزيز يزور الكويت ويقيم لمدة اسبوع فى قصر دسمان ضيفا في عهد الشيخ عبدالله السالم الصباح.
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15-10-1380هـ
1-4-1961
أول إصدار للعملة الكويتية الوطنية وكانت هي الدينار الكويتي.
الذي تم ربط ربط سعر صرفه بالجنيه الاسترليني على اساس قيمة التبادل الذهبية لكل من الدينار والجنيه
وتم ايقاف التعامل بالروبية الهندية
وفي نفس اليوم تم طرح الاصدار الأول من النقد الكويتي للتداول وتوزعت فيها العملة الورقية الى خمس فئات موزعة على الربع والنصف دينار والدينار والخمسة والعشرة دنانير تحمل صورة الشيخ عبدالله السالم الصباح ومن الجهة الثانية صورا لبعض معالم نهضة الكويت في ذلك الوقت مثل ثانوية الشويخ ومصنع الاسمنت وميناء الشويخ وغيرها وانقسمت المسكوكات النقدية الى ست قطع مستديرة مختلفة القيمة والحجم والوزن والنوع.
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15-10-1380هـ
1-4-1961
صدور أول مجموعة طوابع كويتية تحمل القيمة بالفلس والدينارالكويتي.
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15-10-1380هـ
1-4-1961
صدور قرار بنقل اختصاصات القضاء الاجنبي بالكويت الى محاكم الكويت الوطنية وعليه اصبح جميع المقيمين فى الكويت على اختلاف جنسياتهم خاضعين لسلطة المحاكم الوطنية مهما كان نوع القضية.
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15-10-1380هـ
1-4-1961
موافقة مجلس جامعة الدول العربية على مشروع اتفاقية إنشاء المنظمة العربية للعلوم الإدارية.
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28-11-1384هـ
1-4-1965
بدء انتاج حقل مياه الروضتين وهو أحد آبار المياه الطبيعية فى الكويت والذي تم اكتشافه عام 1960.
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9-12-1385هـ
1-4-1966
رابطة الأدباء بالكويت تصدر مجلة أدبية شهرية باسم البيان.
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20-12-1386هـ
1-4-1967
تأسيس الجمعية الكويتية للفنون التشكيلية بهدف ايجاد تجمع فني يضم الحركة التشكيلية ويساعد على نضوجها الكامل لتستطيع تلبية الرغبة الكامنة فى نفوسهم لخلق حركة تشكيلية معاصرة تستطيع الوقوف جنبا الى جنب مع مثيلاتها فى العالم.
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20-12-1386هـ
1-4-1967
صدور مرسوم أميري بانشاء كلية للحقوق والشريعة وأخرى للتجارة والاقتصاد والعلوم السياسية بجامعة الكويت.
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3-1-1388هـ
1-4-1968
رقم قياسي لسعر برميل النفط الذي تدنى الى ما دون 10 دولارات
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13-1-1389هـ
1-4-1969
افتتاح بنك الكويت المركزي ابوابه ومباشرته أعماله حسب القانون رقم 32 لسنة 1968م
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1-4-1970



Nixon signs legislation banning cigarette ads on TV and radio


On this day in 1970, President Richard Nixon signs legislation officially banning cigarette ads on television and radio. Nixon, who was an avid pipe smoker, indulging in as many as eight bowls a day, supported the legislation at the increasing insistence of public health advocates


.


Alarming health studies emerged as early as 1939 that linked cigarette smoking to higher incidences of cancer and heart disease and, by the end of the 1950s, all states had laws prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors. In 1964, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) agreed that advertisers had a responsibility to warn the public of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. In 1969, after the surgeon general of the United States released an official report linking cigarette smoking to low birth weight, Congress yielded to pressure from the public health sector and signed the Cigarette Smoking Act. This act required cigarette manufacturers to place warning labels on their products that stated "Cigarette Smoking May be Hazardous to Your Health


."


By the early 1970s, the fight between the tobacco lobby and public health interests forced Congress to draft legislation to regulate the tobacco industry and special committees were convened to hear arguments from both sides. Public health officials and consumers wanted stronger warning labels on tobacco products and their advertisements banned from television and radio, where they could easily reach impressionable children. (Tobacco companies were the single largest product advertisers on television in 1969.) Cigarette makers defended their industry with attempts to negate the growing evidence that nicotine was addictive and that cigarette smoking caused cancer. Though they continued to bombard unregulated print media with ads for cigarettes, tobacco companies lost the regulatory battle over television and radio. The last televised cigarette ad ran at 11:50 p.m. during The Johnny Carson Show on January 1, 1971


.


Tobacco has played a part in the lives of presidents since the country’s inception. A hugely profitable crop in early America, Presidents Washington, Jefferson, Madison and Jackson owned tobacco plantations and used tobacco in the form of “snuff” or smoked cigars. Regulation of the tobacco industry in the form of excise taxes began during Washington’s presidency and continues to this day. In 1962, Kennedy became the first president to sponsor studies on smoking and public health


.


Presidential cigarette smokers include Taft (who quit during his term), Harding, Franklin Roosevelt (who was frequently photographed with his trademark cigarette holder), Hoover (a chain smoker) and Eisenhower. Adams, Coolidge and Ford enjoyed smoking pipes. Presidents Grant, Teddy Roosevelt, Carter and Clinton engaged in the time-honored, after-dinner cigar-smoking ritual at many state functions. Kennedy, who also enjoyed cigars, had his press secretary buy as many Cuban cigars as possible before he strengthened a trade embargo against Cuba in 1961. Though McKinley did not like to smoke cigars, he was known to break them up and chew the tobacco inside. Taylor also preferred to chew his tobacco, and chewing-tobacco spittoons dotted the White House during his tenure—he claimed he could hit his mark from 12 feet. On the contrary, Truman, Hayes and first lady Hilary Clinton banned smoking inside the White House during their respective time there


.


First ladies have also enjoyed tobacco in various forms over the years. Though smoking was considered unladylike until well into the 20th century, Dolley Madison, Rachel Jackson and Margaret Taylor all used snuff. Though Eleanor Roosevelt, Mamie Eisenhower, Jackie Kennedy, Betty Ford, Nancy Reagan and Laura Bush all smoked cigarettes at one time in their lives, most smoked only socially or had quit by the time their husbands became president


.


Tobacco has not been the only thing smoked at the White House. In 1978, after country-music entertainer Willie Nelson performed for President Carter there, he is said to have snuck up to the roof and surreptitiously smoked what he called “a big fat Austin torpedo,” commonly known as marijuana


.
------------------------------------------------------
24-1-1390هـ
1-4-1970
-في الكويت-صدور العدد الأول من مجلة عالم الفكر الفصلية.
-------------------------------------------------------------
1-4-1971
صدور العدد الأول من الطبعة العربية لموسوعة المعرفة
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16-2-1392هـ
1-4-1972
تغيير اسم الاذاعة المحلية بالكويت إلي اسم (اذاعة البرنامج الثاني)0
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1-4-1972




North Vietnamese launch Nguyen Hue Offensive


Following three days of the heaviest artillery and rocket bombardment of the war, between 12,000 and 15,000 soldiers of Hanoi's 304th Division--supported by tanks, artillery, and antiaircraft units equipped with surface-to-air missiles--sweep across the Demilitarized Zone. They routed the South Vietnamese 3rd Division and drove them toward their rear bases


.


This attack was the opening move of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive (later called the "Easter Offensive"), a massive invasion by North Vietnamese forces designed to strike the blow that would win them the war. The attacking force included 14 infantry divisions and 26 separate regiments, with more than 120,000 troops and approximately 1,200 tanks and other armored vehicles. The main North Vietnamese objectives, in addition to Quang Tri in the north, were Kontum in the Central Highlands, and An Loc farther to the south


.


North Vietnam had a number of objectives in launching the offensive: impressing the communist world and its own people with its determination; capitalizing on U.S. antiwar sentiment and possibly hurting President Richard Nixon's chances for re-election; proving that "Vietnamization" was a failure; damaging the South Vietnamese forces and government stability; gaining as much territory as possible before a possible truce; and accelerating negotiations on their own terms


.


Initially, the South Vietnamese defenders were almost overwhelmed, particularly in the northernmost provinces, where they abandoned their positions in Quang Tri and fled south in the face of the enemy onslaught. At Kontum and An Loc, the South Vietnamese were more successful in defending against the attacks, but only after weeks of bitter fighting. Although the South Vietnamese suffered heavy casualties, they managed to hold their own with the aid of U.S. advisors and American airpower. Fighting continued all over South Vietnam into the summer months, but eventually the South Vietnamese forces prevailed against the invaders and retook Quang Tri in September. With the communist invasion blunted, President Nixon declared that the South Vietnamese victory proved the viability of his Vietnamization program, instituted in 1969 to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese armed forces


.
----------------------------------------------------
8-3-1394هـ
1-4-1974
اطلاق المرجع الشيعي الإيراني (آية الله الخميني) دعوته لإقامة جمهورية إسلامية في إيران والإطاحة بحكم الشاه الملكي وذلك من منفاه في العراق. ولاقت دعوته استجابة كبيرة وهكذا اشتهر في التاريخ بكونه زعيم الثورة الإسلامية في إيران
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1-4-1396هـ
1-4-1976
وفاة الرسام ماكس ارنست
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23-4-1398هـ
1-4-1978
افتتاح وكالة أنباء الخليج في البحرين.
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4-5-1399هـ
1-4-1979
إعلان قيام الجمهورية الإسلامية في إيران بزعامة آية الله الخميني (1900 - 1989 ) بعد سقوط الشاه محمد رضا بهلوي.
عاد الخميني إلى إيران في الأول من فبراير/شباط 1979 بعد أن قضى 15 عاما في المنفى بين تركيا والعراق وفرنسا. أسس الجمهورية الإسلامية الإيرانية بعد الإطاحة بحكم الشاه محمد رضا بهلوي (1919 - 1980 ). دخلت بلاده حربا مع العراق بين عامي 1980 و1988.
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4-5-1399هـ
1-4-1979
إعلان قيام الجمهورية الإسلامية في إيران بزعامة آية الله الخميني بعد سقوط الشاه محمد رضا بهلوي.
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17-6-1403هـ
1-4-1983
تظاهر مليون شخص في بريطانيا والإكوادور الغربية ضد قرار نصب صواريخ نووية في البلدين من جانب الولايات المتحدة.
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29-6-1404هـ
1-4-1984
وضع رئيس مصر ( حسنى مبارك ) حجر الأساس لنفق ميدان الجلاء بالجيزة
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21-7-1406هـ
1-4-1986
بدء أول انتخابات ديموقراطية في السودان بعد توقف 18سنة
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21-7-1406هـ
1-4-1986
رقم قياسي لسعر برميل النفط الذي تدنى الى ما دون 10 دولارات
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21-7-1406هـ
1-4-1986
موت الكاتب والشاعرالأمريكى ( جون سيارونى ) عن 69 عاما
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24-8-1409هـ
1-4-1989
تنصيب ( ياسر عرفات ) رئيساً لدولة فلسطين
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15-9-1411هـ
1-4-1991 اعلان مجموعة جديدة من دول حلف وارسو انسحابها من الحلف الذي كان يلفظ أنفاسه الأخيرة بعد نحو أربعين عاما كان
خلالها ثاني أهم تحالف عسكري في العالم إلى جانب حلف شمال الأطلنطي (الناتو) .
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15-9-1411هـ
1-4-1991
اعلان الرئيس الجزائري الشاذلي بن جديد عن إجراء أول انتخابات عامة متعددة الأحزاب في تاريخ الجزائر.
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8-10-1413هـ
1-4-1993
تقديم البوسنة والهرسك دعوى ضد يوغسلافيا (صربيا) لدى محكمة العدل الدولية في لاهاي بتهمة ارتكابها مجازر جماعية منظمة ضد الشعب البوسني، ما أدى إلى قتل ربع المليون بوسنوي وتشريد مليونين آخرين واغتصاب خمسين ألف امرأة، كما جاء في الدعوى.
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19-10-1414هـ
1-4-1994
سريان اتفاق أرامكو مع تكساكو لافنيا ديموي برينس الهولندية والذي يقضي بتملك أرامكو السعودية 34.35 بالمائة من محطة تخزين النفط العملاقة تكساكو ــــ أيو ماتشاب .
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1-11-1415هـ
1-4-1995
إفتتاح المؤتمر الدولى للمناجم و التعدين عند القدماء
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12-11-1416هـ
1-4-1996
اعتماد مجلس الوزراء الكويتي تنفيذ المرحلة الثانية من مشروع الحزام الامني والذي يهدف الى احكام السيطرة على منطقة الحدود الشمالية للبلاد وحمايتها من مختلف المخاطر المحتملة .
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12-11-1416هـ
1-4-1996
تولّي جميل الحجيلان مهام منصبه كأمين عام لمجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية
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3-12-1418هـ
1-4-1998
العثور على وجه تمثال للملك أخناتون فى منطقة تل بسطة بمحافطة الشرقية في مصر
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7-1-1422هـ
1-4-2001
اعتقال رئيس صربيا ( سلوبودان ميلوسيفيتش ) بتهمة ارتكاب جرائم حرب وجرائم ضد الانسانية وعمليات إبادة جماعية حسب اتهام محكمة الجزاء الدولية له
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7-1-1422هـ
1-4-2001
اصطدام طائرة تجسس تابعة للبحرية الآمريكية بمقابلة صينية فوق البحر فى جنوب الصين وأجبرت الطائرة الآمريكية على الهبوط فى الصين واحتجزت أفراد طاقمهاال24 لآحد عشر يوما لحدوث توتر جديد بين بكين وواشنطن وأخيرا عادت الطائرة التى تعرضت لآضرار بسبب الإصطدام إلى الولايات المتحدة يوم الخامس من يوليو
وكانت العلاقات الأمريكية الصينية متوترة اصلا بسبب قرار متوقع لبيع أمريكا أسلحة إلى تايوان.
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18-1-1423هـ
1-4-2002
الادارة العامة للجمارك بالكويت تبدأ تطبيق الضريبة الجمركية الجديدة على السجائر والتبغ بنسبة 100 في المئة وذلك تطبيقا لقرارات مجلس وزراء الصحة لمجلس التعاون الخليجي فى هذا الشأن.
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18-1-1423هـ
1-4-2002
مطالبة صحفيين وإعلاميين يمنيين بطرد السفير الأمريكي في اليمن، وإيقاف التعاون الأمني بين صنعاء وواشنطن، وتعليق التسهيلات، التي تقدمها الموانئ اليمنية للسفن والبواخر الأمريكية، واستدعاء السفير اليمني من واشنطن، احتجاجا على “الانحياز المشين لواشنطن إلى جانب الإرهاب الصهيوني ضد الشعب الفلسطيني وقواه الوطنية والإسلامية”.
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18-1-1423هـ
1-4-2002
بدأ مجلس الامة بالكويت جلسة مناقشة الاستجواب المقدم من النائب الدكتور حسن جوهر لوزير التربية ووزير التعليم العالي الدكتور مساعد الهارون واكتفى المجلس بتعهد الوزير العمل على تنفيذ ماورد فى محاور الاستجواب باصلاح الاوضاع فى جامعة الكويت لاسيما الجوانب الاكاديمية والمالية والتطبيق الكامل لقانون منع الاختلاط.
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18-1-1423هـ
1-4-2002
صارت هولندا اول دولة في العالم تشرع القتل الرحيم
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18-1-1423هـ
1-4-2002
افتتاح وزير الصحة بالكويت الدكتور محمد الجا
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://pearls.yoo7.com
 
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