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 History of Nicaragua

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/08/2009

History of Nicaragua  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: History of Nicaragua    History of Nicaragua  Icon_minitimeالثلاثاء سبتمبر 04, 2012 5:56 pm






History of Nicaragua
https://pearls.yoo7.com/t1727-topic


In the late 1400s and early 1500s:
Nicarao is the chief of the indigenous tribe that lived around present-day Lake Nicaragua
Notice that : Nicaragua takes its name from this man
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In 1524
Hernandez de Cordoba founded the first Spanish permanent settlements in the region, including two of Nicaragua's principal towns:ـ
1- Granada , located on Lake Nicaragua
2- Leon, located west of Lake Managua
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in 1821
Nicaragua gained independence from Spain
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briefly:ـ
Nicaragua become a part of the Mexican Empire
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and then:
Nicaragua become a member of a federation of independent Central American provinces
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In 1838
Nicaragua became an independent republic.
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since independence:
The rivalry between the Liberal elite of Leon and the Conservative elite of Granada

The rivalry frequently led to civil war
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in 1855
An American named (William Walker) was invited by the Liberals to join their struggle against the Conservatives
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in 1856
William Walker and his "Filibusterers" seized the presidency .
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14-9-1856
Walker’s troops and Nicaraguan troops fought a historic battle at San Jacinto hacienda , which is now celebrated as a national holiday
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In 1857
the Liberals and Conservatives united to drive Walker out of office.
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and then:
Three decades of Conservative rule followed.
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In 1893
Jose Santos Zelaya took advantage of divisions within the Conservative ranks and led a Liberal revolt that carried him to power
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in 1894
Zelaya ended a longstanding dispute with Britain over the Caribbean coast, and formally reincorporated that region into Nicaragua, establishing Nicaragua’s present-day boundaries
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By 1909
political differences and rivalries again emerged over plans for a trans-isthmian canal and concessions granted to American investors in Nicaragua
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In 1909
the U.S.A provided political support to Conservative-led forces rebelling against President Zelaya and intervened militarily to protect American lives and property

With the exception of a 9-month period in 1925-26, the United States maintained troops in Nicaragua from 1912 until 1933
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From 1927 until 1933
U.S. Marines stationed in Nicaragua engaged in an effort to capture rebel forces led by Augusto Sandino, a Liberal general who had rejected a 1927 negotiated agreement brokered by the United States to end the conflict between Liberals and Conservatives
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In 1933
The departure of U.S. troops from Nicaragua

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عدل سابقا من قبل البدراني في الأربعاء أبريل 09, 2014 7:37 am عدل 2 مرات
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البدراني
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عدد المساهمات : 3882
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/08/2009

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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: History of Nicaragua    History of Nicaragua  Icon_minitimeالأحد سبتمبر 30, 2012 9:49 pm

After the departure of U.S. troops in 1933, National Guard Commander Anastasio Somoza Garcia outmaneuvered his political opponents--including Sandino, who was assassinated by National Guard officers--and took over the presidency in 1936. Somoza and his two sons who succeeded him sought to maintain close ties with the United States

The Somoza dynasty, beset by corruption, ended in 1979 with a massive uprising led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), which had conducted a low-scale guerrilla war against the Somoza regime since the early 1960s

Soon after taking power the FSLN pushed out rival factions and established an authoritarian dictatorship under leadership of Daniel Ortega. U.S.-Nicaraguan relations deteriorated rapidly as the regime nationalized many private industries, confiscated private property, supported Central American guerrilla movements, and maintained links to international terrorists, including the Colombian guerrilla group Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), the Basque Homeland and Freedom (ETA) separatist group, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)

The United States suspended aid to Nicaragua in 1981. Later the Ronald Reagan administration provided assistance to the Nicaraguan resistance (Contras) and in 1985 imposed an embargo on U.S.-Nicaraguan trade

In response to both domestic and international pressure, Ortega’s Sandinista regime entered into negotiations with the Nicaraguan resistance leaders and ultimately agreed to nationwide elections in February 1990

In these elections, Nicaraguans elected as their President the National Opposition Union (UNO) candidate, Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, widow of the slain journalist and editor of the daily newspaper La Prensa, Pedro Joaquin Chamorro. She defeated Ortega, the Sandinista Party candidate

During President Chamorro's nearly 7 years in office, her government achieved major progress toward consolidating democratic institutions, advancing national reconciliation, stabilizing the economy, privatizing state-owned enterprises, and reducing human rights violations

Despite a number of irregularities--which were due largely to logistical difficulties and a complicated electoral law--the October 20, 1996 presidential, legislative, and mayoral elections were judged free and fair by international observers and by the national electoral observer group Etica y Transparencia (Ethics and Transparency). This time Nicaraguans elected former Managua Mayor Arnoldo Aleman, leader of the center-right Liberal Alliance. Aleman defeated Sandinista Party candidate Daniel Ortega.

The first transfer of power in modern Nicaraguan history from one democratically-elected president to another took place on January 10, 1997, when the Aleman government was inaugurated

Aleman’s administration was marred by graft and corruption. At the end of his term, Aleman entered into a political pact (el Pacto) with Daniel Ortega to divide control of state institutions between them and perpetuate themselves in power

Nicaragua held presidential and legislative elections in November 2001

Enrique Bolanos of the Liberal Constitutional Party was elected to the Nicaraguan presidency on November 4, 2001, defeating Sandinista candidate Daniel Ortega by 14 percentage points. President Bolanos was inaugurated on January 10, 2002. His administration sought to deliver on campaign promises to reinvigorate the economy, create jobs, fight corruption, and support efforts against terrorism

However, political attacks from both the left and the right severely blunted his administration’s efforts to shrink traditional sources and bases of political patronage and corruption

FSLN candidate Daniel Ortega won the presidential elections of November 5, 2006, with 38% of the vote, defeating a divided opposition. ALN candidate Eduardo Montealegre garnered 29%; Jose Rizo of the PLC received 26%; and MRS' Edmundo Jarquin polled fourth with 6%
Ortega was inaugurated on 10-Jan-2007

The November 2008 municipal, March 2010 regional, and November 2011 presidential and legislative elections were marred by significant irregularities and were denounced by domestic and international observers as severely flawed

The FSLN-controlled Supreme Electoral Council (CSE) claimed that Daniel Ortega was re-elected with 62% of the vote and that the FSLN party received 63 seats in the National Assembly to claim a legislative supermajority. International and domestic organizations also raised concerns regarding the constitutional legitimacy of Ortega’s reelection.

Sources:

CIA World Factbook issued in (February 2012)
http://globaledge.msu.edu/countries/nicaragua/history
U.S. Dept. of State Country Background Notes ( published in February 2012)
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History of Nicaragua
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