منتدي لآلـــئ

التاريخ والجغرافيا وتحليل الأحداث
 
الرئيسيةالرئيسية  أحدث الصورأحدث الصور  التسجيلالتسجيل  دخولدخول  

 

 History Of Croatia

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
البدراني
عضو فعال
البدراني


عدد المساهمات : 3882
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/08/2009

History Of  Croatia  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: History Of Croatia    History Of  Croatia  Icon_minitimeالأحد مايو 29, 2011 3:36 am

History Of Croatia




Early history
-----------------------
Throughout the prehistoric period:The area known as Croatia today was inhabited
----------------------
In the middle Paleolithic period:
Fossils of Neanderthals dating to the middle Paleolithic have been unearthed in the area of Krapina and Vindija.
--------------------
In Late Mousterian period:
More recent (late Mousterian) Neanderthal remains have been discovered in Mujina pećina near the coast.
--------------------
In the early Neolithic period:
the Starčevo, Vučedol and Hvar cultures were scattered around the region.
--------------------
In The Iron Age:
The Iron Age left traces of the Hallstatt culture (early Illyrians) and the La Tène culture (Celts).
--------------------
Much later:
the region was settled by Liburnians, Dacians and Illyrians, and Greek colonies were established on the islands of Vis (by Dionysius I of Syracuse) and Hvar.
-----------------------------------------
9 AD
the territory of today's Croatia became part of the Roman Empire.
--------------------
305 AD  :
Emperor Diocletian built a massive palace in Split where he retired from politics .
--------------------
[C5]
During the 5th century:
the last Roman Emperor Julius Nepos ruled his small empire from Diocletian's Palace before he was killed in AD 480.
--------------------
in the first half of the 7th century :
The early history of Croatia ends with the Avar invasion in the first half of the 7th century and the destruction of almost all Roman towns.
Roman survivors retreated to strategically better defended points on the coast, islands and mountains.
The modern city of Dubrovnik was founded by those survivors.
--------------------
[C7]
the 7th century :
Kingdom of Croatia (medieval):

The Croats arrived in what is today Croatia probably in the early 7th century.
They organized into two dukedoms:
1- the duchy of Pannonia in the north
2- the duchy of Littoral Croatia in the south.
--------------------
[640]
Emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus wrote that Porga, duke of the Dalmatian Croats, who had been invited into Dalmatia by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius, sent to Heraclius for Christian teachers.
According to Constantine, at the request of Heraclius, Pope John IV (640–642) sent Christian teachers and missionaries to the Croatian Provinces. These missionaries converted Porga, and also a great many of the clan that was under his immediate authority, to the Christian faith in 640.
--------------------
From 640
till :  [C9]end:

The Christianization of the Croats
It was mostly complete by the 9th century.
--------------------
[C8]
Both duchies { Pannonia+  Littoral Croatia} became Frankish vassals in late 8th century
--------------------
[C9]
Both duchies { Pannonia+  Littoral Croatia} became independent
--------------------
[879]
The first native Croatian ruler recognized by the Pope was (Duke Branimir), whom ( Pope John VIII) called dux Croatorum  in 879.
--------------------
[925]

(Duke Tomislav) united the Croats of Dalmatia and Pannonia into a single Kingdom in 925.

Note:
The Kingdom of Croatia existed from its foundation in 925 until the end of World War I, initially as an independent kingdom and later as a crown in multiethnic empires such as the Kingdom of Hungary, the Habsburg monarchy and Austria-Hungary.
--------------------
@(Duke Tomislav):
of Littoral Croatia
He was one of the most prominent members of the House of Trpimirović.

Traditionally it is stated that Tomislav's state extended from the Adriatic Sea to the Drava river, and from the ( Raša river) to  (Drina river), but the precise borders are unknown.

Under his rule, Croatia became one of the most powerful kingdoms in Medieval Europe.

Tomislav defeated the invasions of the Arpads in battle and forced them across the Drava.

He also annexed a part of Pannonia.
This included the area between the rivers Drava, Sava and Kupa, so his Duchy bordered with Bulgaria for a period of time.

This was the first time that the two Croatian Realms were united, and all Croats were in one state.
--------------------
The union was later recognised by Byzantium, which gave the royal crown to Stjepan Držislav and papal crown to king Zvonimir.
--------------------
[1058] till [1089] :
The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak during the reign of Kings Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Zvonimir (1075–1089).

-------------------

[1091]
Following the extinction of the Croatian ruling dynasty in 1091, Ladislaus I of Hungary, the brother of Jelena Lijepa, the last Croatian queen, became the king of Croatia.
--------------------


Croatian nobility of the Littoral opposed this crowning, which led to 10 years of war
--------------------
[1102]
the treaty of 1102 :
1-the recognition of the Hungarian ruler Coloman as the king of Croatia and Hungary.
2- Hungarian ruler Coloman promised to maintain Croatia as a separate kingdom, not to settle Croatia with Hungarians, to guarantee Croatia's self-governance under a Ban, and to respect all the rights, laws and privileges of the Croatian Kingdom.
--------------------
During this union with Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia never lost the right to elect its own king, had the ruling dynasty become extinct.


[1293 ]
Croatia chose its own king, but  Hungary declared war and the union was reestablished.
--------------------
[1403 ]
Croatia chose its own king, but the Kingdom of Hungary declared war and the union was reestablished.
--------------------
For 4 centuries:
the Kingdom of Croatia was ruled by the Sabor and Bans appointed by the Hungarian king.

The Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia remained a legally distinct constitutional entity, but the advent of a Hungarian king brought about other consequences such as: the introduction of feudalism and the rise of native noble families such as the Frankopans and the Šubićs.
--------------------
[ 1273 ]
Congregatio Regni tocius Sclavonie Generalis, the oldest surviving document written by the Croatian parliament, dates from this period.
--------------------
Subsequent kings sought to restore some of their previously lost influence by granting certain privileges to towns.
--------------------
[C15 ]
In the late 15th century the Ottomans conquered Makarska
--------------------
[1526 ]
The first period of personal union between Croatia and Hungary ended in 1526 with the Battle of Mohács and the defeat of Hungarian forces by the Ottomans. After the death of King Louis II, Croatian nobles at the Cetingrad assembly chose the Habsburgs as new rulers of the Kingdom of Croatia, under the condition that they provide the troops and finances required to protect Croatia against the Ottoman Empire.

--------------------
Republic of Ragusa:
--------------------
[C7]
till: [1358]
The city of Dubrovnik/Ragusa was founded in 7th century

after Avar and Slavic raiders destroyed the Roman city of Epidaurum. The surviving Roman population escaped to a small island near the coast where they founded a new settlement.

During the Fourth Crusade the city fell under control of the Republic of Venice until the 1358 Zadar treaty
--------------------
[1358 ]
Zadar treaty :
Venice, defeated by the Hungarian kingdom, lost control of Dalmatia and the Republic of Ragusa became a tributary of that kingdom.
--------------------
Through the next 450 years the Republic of Ragusa would be a tributary Republic protected by Ottomans and Habsburgs until the Napoleon abolished in 1808 when Ragusa, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia was briefly the Illyrian Provinces. During this time the republic became rich through trade.

The republic became the most important publisher of Croatian literature during the Renaissance and Baroque periods.

Aside from poets and writers like Marin Držić and Ivan Gundulić, whose works were important for Croat literature development, the most famous person from the Republic of Dubrovnik was the scientist Ruđer Josip Bošković, who was a member of the Royal Society and the Russian Academy of Sciences.

The republic would survive until 1808 when it was annexed by Napoleon. Today the city of Dubrovnik features on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list and is a famous tourist destination.
--------------------
[1409]
 Decision of the king of Croatia, Ladislas of Naples, to sell his rights on Dalmatia to Venice in 1409.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Ottoman wars:
Shortly after the Battle of Mohács, the Habsburgs unsuccessfully sought to stabilise the borders between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Croatia by creating a captaincy in Bihać.
--------------------
[1529]
the Ottoman army swept through the area and captured Buda and besieged Vienna; an event which brought violence and turmoil to the Croatian border areas
--------------------
[1553]
After the failure of the first military operations, the Kingdom of Croatia was split into civilian and military units in 1553.

The latter became Croatian Krajina and Slavonian Krajina and both eventually became parts of the Croatian Military Frontier which was directly under the control of Vienna.

Ottoman raids on Croatian territory continued until the Battle of Sisak in 1593,
--------------------
[1593]
the Battle of Sisak
after this battle the borders stabilised for some time.

The kingdom of that time became known as the Reliquiae reliquiarum olim inclyti Regni Croatiae ("The remains of the remains of the once famous Kingdom of Croatia").
--------------------
[1566]

the Battle of Szigetvár
it was an an important battle
2,300 soldiers under the leadership of ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski held back for two months 100,000 Ottoman soldiers led by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, fighting to the last man.
Cardinal Richelieu was reported to have called the event "the battle that saved civilization."
--------------------
(1667–1698)
During the Great Turkish War (1667–1698), Slavonia was regained but hilly western Bosnia, which had been a part of Croatia until the Ottoman conquest, remained outside Croatian control and the current border, which resembles a crescent or a horseshoe, is a remnant of this historical outcome. The southern part of the 'horseshoe' was created by the Venetian conquest following the Siege of Zara and was defined by the 17–18th century wars with the Ottomans.
The de jure reason for Venetian expansion was the decision of the king of Croatia, Ladislas of Naples, to sell his rights on Dalmatia to Venice in 1409.
During more than two centuries of Ottoman wars, Croatia underwent great demographic changes. The Croats left the riverland areas of Gacka, Lika and Krbava, Moslavina in Slavonia, and an area in present day north-western Bosnia to move towards Austria where they remained and the present day Burgenland Croats are direct descendants of these settlers.
To replace the fleeing Croats, the Habsburgs called on the Orthodox populations of Bosnia and Serbia to provide military service in Croatian and Slavonian Krajina.
--------------------
[C16 : C18]
Serbian migration into this region, which had started in the 16th century, peaked during the Great Serb Migrations of 1690 and 1737–39.
The rights and obligations of new populace of the Military frontier were decided with the Statuta Valachorum in 1630.
--------------------------------
[1630]
The rights and obligations of new populace of the Military frontier were decided with the Statuta Valachorum in 1630.
#################################

Illyrian movement :
#######################
[1813]
National revival in Croatia started in 1813 when the bishop of Zagreb (Maksimilijan Vrhovac) issued a plea for the collection of "national treasures".
--------------------
[1816]
the 1816 Austro-Hungarian census:
According to this census, 22% of the Dalmatian population was Italian-speaking.
Even with a large Slavic (Croatian) majority, Dalmatia retained large Italian communities in the coast (in the cities and the islands, largest concentration in Istria).
Note:
Starting in the 19th century, most Dalmatian Italians and Morlachs with an Istro-Romanian language gradually assimilated to the prevailing Croatian culture and language.


--------------------
[1830s]
At the beginning of the 1830s, a group of young Croatian writers gathered in Zagreb and established the Illyrian movement for national renewal and unity of all South Slavs within the Habsburg Monarchy.

The most important focus of the Illyrians was the establishment of a standard language as a counter-weight to Hungarian, and the promotion of Croatian literature and official culture.

Important members of this movement were Count Janko Drašković, who initiated the movement by writing a pamphlet in 1832, Ljudevit Gaj who received permission from the royal government of Habsburg for printing the first newspaper in the Croatian language, Antun Mihanović, who wrote the lyrics for the Croatian national anthem, Vatroslav Lisinski, composer of the first Croatian language opera, "Ljubav i zloba" ("Love and Malice", 1846), and many others.

Fearful first of Hungarian and then Habsburg (Austrian) pressure of assimilation, the Kingdom of Croatia had always refused to change the status of Latin as its official language until the middle of the 19th century.
--------------------
on 2-5-1843
the Croatian language was first spoken in parliament
--------------------
[ 1847]
the Croatian language finally gained official status  due to the popularity of the Illyrian movement.


#######################

Austria–Hungary :
####################

1-1-1527
Croatian noblemen gathered in the Cetin fortress in the city of Cetingrad for the Parliament on Cetin and elected Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria as the new king of the Croatian kingdom.

Croatia of that time was carring a name triune kingdom; Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Dalmatia and Kingdom of Slavonia.
--------------------
[1868]
Kingdom of Croatia and kingdom of Slavonia united in 1868, creating Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.
--------------------
[1848]
the Hungarian revolution:
The Croatian answer to the Hungarian revolution of 1848 was a declaration of war.
--------------------
[1849]+
Austrian, Croatian and Russian forces together defeated the Hungarian army in 1849 and the following 17 years were remembered in Croatia and Hungary for the policy of Germanization.
--------------------
[1867]+
the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 :
The eventual failure of this policy resulted in the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and the creation of a monarchic union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary.

The treaty left unanswered the question of the status of Croatia.
The following year the Croatian and Hungarian parliaments created a constitution for union of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and the Kingdom of Hungary.
--------------------
After the Ottoman Empire lost military control over Bosnia and Herzegovina, Austria-Hungary abolished Croatian Krajina and Slavonian Krajina, restoring the territories to Croatia in 1881.
--------------------
[C19H2]
During the second half of the 19th century:
pro-Hungarian and pro-Austrian political parties played Croats against Serbs with the aim of controlling the parliament.
--------------------
[1906]
a Croat-Serb coalition won the elections.
sO, The polcy  of pro-Hungarians and pro-Austrians failed in 1906

The newly created political situation remained unchanged until the advent of World War I.


##########################

Kingdom of Yugoslavia:

########################
29-10-1918
the Croatian Sabor (parliament) declared independence, creating the new State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs.
Pressured by the Italian army, which was entering its territory from south and west, the National Council (Narodno vijeće) started expedient negotiations with the Kingdom of Serbia and on 23-11-1918, a delegation was sent to Belgrade with the aim of a proclamation of union.

The National Council delegation delivered 11 points which needed to be fulfilled for the creation of a future state.

The most important of these points was the first, which referred to the need of a constitution for the new state, a proposal that was passed with a two thirds majority.

Eventually, a constitution for a centralized state was passed with a majority of 50% + 1 vote and caused the end of state autonomy
--------------------
1-12-1918
the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, colloquially known as Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was created.

This decision created public outcry among Croats, which started a political upheaval for the restoration of state autonomy by the leadership of the Croatian Peasant Party.
--------------------
[1928]
The unhealthy political situation in Yugoslavia became much worse after Stjepan Radić, the president of CPP, was killed in the Yugoslav parliament building in 1928 by Serbian ultranationalist Puniša Račić.

The ensuing chaotic period ended the next year when King Alexander abolished the Constitution, prorogued the Parliament and introduced a personal dictatorship.

The next four years of the Yugoslav regime were  as a "horrible brutality which is being practised upon the Croatian People".

During the dictatorship, (Vladko Maček), leader of the Croatian Peasant Party, was imprisoned>
He got his freedom only  after (king Alexander) was killed in a plot organized by the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization.

Upon Maček's release, the political situation was restored to that before the murder of Stjepan Radić, continuing Croatian demands for autonomy.
--------------------
26-8-1939
The Croatian question was solved  by the Cvetković-Maček Agreement, when Croatia received autonomy and an extension of its borders and Maček became Yugoslav vice-prime minister.

#################
World War II
##############
6-4-1941
The German invasion:
The ensuing peace was terminated by the German invasion of 1941.
--------------------
17-4-1941
unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army to the  Nazi Germany.
--------------------
The territory of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region of Syrmia became a puppet state of Nazi Germany called the Independent State of Croatia.

Istria, the port city of Rijeka, and a portion of Dalmatia up to Split were occupied by Italy.

Baranja and Medjumurje were occupied by Hungary.

Although the recently returned exiled Ustashe was in charge of the new regime, the Axis occupiers initially offered the state leadership to Vladko Maček, the leader of the Croatian Peasants' Party (HSS), but he refused.
Only one day after entering Zagreb, on April 17, 1941, Ante Pavelić proclaimed that all people who offended, or tried to offend against the Croatian nation were guilty of treason — a crime punishable by death.

The Ustashe regime introduced anti-Semitic Nuremberg-style[citation needed] laws, and also conducted massacres of mostly Serbs and other non-Croats, as well as running concentration camps such as the one at Jasenovac and Stara Gradiska where opponents of the Ustashe regime and other 'undesirables' were held.

Catholic priests who were involved in the Ustashe movement, particularly the notorious Father Miroslav Filipović were defrocked. However, others such as the Archbishop of Zagreb Alojzije Stepinac not only condemned Ustashe crimes in his sermons but also offered refuge and protection to persecuted Serbs and Jews.

The Jewish Virtual Library estimates that between 45,000 and 52,000 Croatian Serbs were killed at Jasenovac and that between 330,000 and 390,000 Serbs were victims of the entire genocide campaign.

The remnants of the Royal Yugoslav Army, later reorganized into the predominantly Serbian Chetniks, offered resistance to the Nazi occupation and their Ustashe collaborators, but the Yugoslav Royalist Chetniks soon started collaborating with Nazis and Fascist Italy. Civil war broke out.
--------------------
22-6-1941
 in response to Hitler's surprise "Operation Barbarossa" attack on the Soviet Union, a massive uprising began on June 22, 1941 with the creation of 1st Sisak Partisan Detachment.

The leadership of the Yugoslav partisan movement was in the hands of Croat Josip Broz Tito, whose policy of brotherhood and unity would in the end defeat not only the Axis occupiers, but also their various collaborators in the armed forces of the Independent State of Croatia and other quislings (which could be found in every Yugoslav social and national group).

The victory of Tito's partisans against the Nazi occupiers and their allies resulted in the massacres of those Croatian Domobran (Home Guard) and Ustashe who were repatriated from Austria by the British 8th Army.

In the decade after World War II, up to 350,000 ethnic Italians left Yugoslavia.

The number of World War II victims in Yugoslavia remains a source of much controversy amongst Serb and Croat nationalist academics and historians on the one side, and independent researchers, mostly notably Vladimir Žerjavić (a Croat) and Bogoljub Kočović (a Serb), on the other.

##########################

Socialist Yugoslavia :
##########################
Modern Croatia was founded on AVNOJ anti-fascist partisans' principles during the second world war, and it became a constitutional federal republic of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

A single-party socialist state was established but, because of the Tito-Stalin split, economic and personal freedom were better than in the Eastern Bloc.

From the 1950s, the Socialist Republic of Croatia enjoyed an autonomy under the rule of the local Communist elite, but in 1967 a group of influential Croatian poets and linguists published a Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language.

After 1968 the patriotic goals of that document morphed into a generic Croatian movement for more rights for Croatia, greater civil rights and demands for the decentralization of the economy.

In the end the Yugoslav leadership interpreted the Croatian Spring as a restoration of Croatian nationalism, dismissed the movement as chauvinistic and arrested most of its important leaders.

In 1974, a new Yugoslav federal constitution was ratified that gave more autonomy to the individual republics, thereby basically fulfilling the main goals of the Croatian Spring.



################################

Croatian War of Independence :
###############################
Nationalistic sentiment, which would bring an end to the Yugoslav federation, had been widespread among various ethnicities for some years.
---------------------
[1981]:[1989
Albanian demands in 1981 for Kosovo to be removed from Serbia and transformed to a constituent republic within Yugoslavia led to riots, and similar attitudes surfaced among other nations with the Serbian SANU Memorandum in 1986; Croatia and Slovenia also responded negatively in 1989 after Serbia's leader Slobodan Milošević organized coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro to install authorities who would be loyal to his cause

Under the influence of (Slobodan Milošević)'s propaganda, the importance of who won the first Croatian multi-party elections in 50 years was diminished. Allegedly, Serbs had influenced both Croatian nationalist leader Franjo Tuđman and communist leader Ivica Račan

The electoral win of Franjo Tuđman further inflamed the situation. Croatian Serbs left the Croatian parliament and created the Association of the Municipalities of Northern Dalmatia and Lika in Knin. This was later to become the Republika Srpska Krajina


"
----------------
[1991]:[1995]
War of Independence:

On the events of 1990–92, (Milan Babić), president of Republika Srpska Krajina, was later to declare that he had been "strongly influenced and misled by Serbian propaganda

These events culminated in the full scale Croatian War of Independence between 1991 and 1995
----------------------
19-12-1991
Iceland was The first country to recognize Croatia    .
-----------------------


15-1-1992
Croatia was internationally recognized  by the European Union and the United Nations.

During that time, Croatia controlled less than two thirds of its legal territory.

-----------------

[1995]
The conflict ended with Operation Storm (known in Croatian as Oluja) in the summer of 1995.
The events of August 1995 remain the subject of several cases before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, regarding the conduct of the victorious Croatian Army and the exodus of ethnic Serbs.
--------------------


Alternates:

dux Croatorum = duke of Croats

Pacta conventa = the treaty of 1102

-----------------
SOURCE:
http://en.wikipedia.org
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
History Of Croatia
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 1 من اصل 1
 مواضيع مماثلة
-
» Ostrogoths
» تاريخ جزر ماريانا الشمالية
»  History of Oceania
»  History of Jamaica
» History of Macedonia

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتدي لآلـــئ :: English :: - Europe --
انتقل الى: