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 History of Pakistan

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تاريخ التسجيل : 16/11/2011

History of Pakistan Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: History of Pakistan   History of Pakistan Icon_minitimeالأحد يونيو 15, 2014 6:12 pm

History of Pakistan
==============



1933
       Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a student at Cambridge, coined the name Pakistan 14 years before the country came into existence.
It was an acronym derived from the regions Punjab, Afghania and Kashmir and Sind.
   (SSFC, 12/17/06, p.G5)
-----------------------------------------
31-5-1935
        In Quetta, India (later Pakistan), a magnitude 7.5 earthquake killed some 50,000 people. The earthquake flattened Quetta, killing an estimated 26,000 people in the city alone, more than half its population.
   (AP, 12/27/03)(AP, 10/15/05)
------------------------------
1936-1947
   Mirza Ali Khan (d.1960), a Wazir of North Waziristan known as the Faqir of Ipi, led a freedom struggle that at one point sucked in some 40,000 British Indian troops. The struggle was only quelled by brutal aerial bombing.
   (Econ, 1/2/10, p.19)
-------------------------
1943        
Bangladesh, while still part of Pakistan, experienced a famine.
   (Econ, 11/3/12, p.23)
-------------------------
3-6-1947
In Britain an announcement was made in the House of Commons that India was to be partitioned and that independence would follow. In 2007 Yasmin Khan authored “The Great Partition: The Making of India and Pakistan.”
   (Econ, 7/21/07, p.81)
-------------------------
15-6-1947
The All-Indian Congress accepted a British plan for the partition of India. Britain partitioned the subcontinent.
   (SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(HN, 6/15/98)
-------------------------
14-8-1947
Pakistan was founded as an independent country. The Muslim areas in the east and west became independent Pakistan with Mohammed Ali Jinnah as president. Independence in Pakistan and India led to bloody conflicts and thousands died.
   (WSJ, 1/9/95, A-8)(TMC, 1994, p.1947)(WSJ, 12/21/95, p.A-12)(WSJ, 5/16/96, p.A-10)(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)
-------------------------
27-10-1947
The Hindu maharajah of Muslim-majority Kashmir joined India. The accession, not recognized by Pakistan, led to a war.
   (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)
-------------------------
1947        
The 664 princely states of India were given the choice of which country they wanted to join. Although most of the people of Kashmir were Muslim, the maharaja was Hindu and he appealed to India for help.
   (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)
-------------------------
1947        
Mohajirs are Muslims who migrated from India after the subcontinent was partitioned. They were politically dominant in the southern province of Sindh.
   (SFC, 2/12/98, p.C3)(WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A13)
-------------------------
1947        
At the time of India’s partition and the creation of Pakistan, many Muslim Biharis moved to what was then East Bengal. In 1971, when war broke out between West Pakistan and East Pakistan (or Bangladesh), the Biharis, who mostly considered themselves Pakistani, sided with West Pakistan.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biharis)
-------------------------
1947        
The initial Pakistani army numbered about 50,000 and established its headquarters in Rawalpindi. By 1999 the force numbered 500,000.
   (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A25)
-------------------------
1947        Britain withdrew from India. Pakistan was carved out of Indian and Afghan lands.
   (www.afghan-web.com/history/)
-------------------------
1947        
A Pushtun force of Wazirs and Mehsuds poured into Kashmir for the newly formed Islamic republic of Pakistan, sparking the first Indo-Pakistan war.
   (Econ, 1/2/10, p.17)(Econ, 5/21/11, p.48)
-------------------------
1948        May,
India and Pakistan went to war over the Himalayan region of Kashmir, which was divided between the two nations at partition. The Pakistani third was known as Jammu and Kashmir, while India controlled the eastern two-thirds where 8 million people lived.
   (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(WSJ, 5/22/98, p.A15)
-------------------------

11-9-1948
Mohammed Ali Jinnah (b.1876, 1st governor of Pakistan (1947-48), died.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad_Ali_Jinnah)
-------------------------
1948        
Govindas Vishnoodas Desani (1909-2000), Kenya-born Pakistani writer in England, authored “All About Hatterr,” his novel of an absurdist and mystical odyssey in India. In 1968 he was invited to teach at the Univ. of Texas and spent 11 years there.
   (SSFC, 12/2/07, p.M1)
-------------------------
1948        
Pakistan established its Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) to protect the country against foreign and domestic security threats.
   (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A6)
-------------------------
1-1-1949
The UN brokered a cease-fire in Kashmir. It granted Kashmir the right to vote on whether to remain in India or to join Pakistan. No vote took place.
   (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)
-------------------------
16-10-1951
Pakistan’s PM Liaquat Ali Khan (b.1896), son of a Punjabi prince, was assassinated in Rawalpindi, ushering in a period of political instability.
   (WSJ, 1/28/08, p.A12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liaquat_Ali_Khan)
-------------------------
3-3-1953
Canadian Comet crashed at Karachi, 11 killed.
   (SC, 3/3/02)
-------------------------
21-6-1953
Benazir Bhutto, Prime Minister of Pakistan, was born. She was elected in 1988 after the military regime had agreed to free elections following the death of President Zhia.
   (WP, 6/29/96, p.A20)(Camelot, 6/21/99)
-------------------------
2-11-1953
Pakistan became an Islamic republic.
   (MC, 11/2/01)
-------------------------
1953        
The first attempt to scale K2, the world’s 2nd tallest mountain, was made by 7 Americans led by Charles Houston and Robert Bates. The mountain straddled China and Pakistan. In 1954 they authored “K2: The Savage Mountain.
   (WSJ, 4/28/07, p.P8)
-------------------------
1954        Apr,
In Pakistan the government issued the Munir Report, an eloquent expression of the state’s position on religion. This was made in response to Muslim leaders in the Punjab who  agitated in 1953 to have a rival group declassified as Muslims.
   (WSJ, 4/4/08, p.W5)(http://aaiil.info/misconceptions/fatwas/munir.htm)
-------------------------
31-7-1954
Italians Lino Lacedelli (1925-2009) and Achille Compagnoni (1915-2009) first scaled Pakistan’s K-2, the world's second-highest mountain. In 2004 Lacedelli authored “K2: The Price of Conquest.”
   (AP, 7/27/04)(SSFC, 11/29/09, p.C8)
-------------------------
8-9-1954
SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization), a sister organization to NATO, was created under the Manila Pact by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, to stop communist spread in Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos). The United States, Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, the Philippines, Pakistan, and Thailand signed the mutual defense treaty. SEATO dissolved in 1977.
   (HNQ, 4/2/01)(http://tinyurl.com/hpawj)
-------------------------
1955        
Iraq joined with Britain, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan in the Baghdad Pact, a loose alliance intended to check soviet influence in the region. The Baghdad Pact was formed at the prompting of the U.S. in an effort to block Soviet pressures on the northern tier of Middle Eastern states. The U.S. provided military and economic aid to the pact members.
   (HNQ, 7/28/98)(SFC, 9/24/02, p.A10)
-------------------------
23-3-1956
Pakistan became an independent republic within the British Commonwealth. Officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. Pakistan became the first Islamic republic,
   (HFA, '96, p.26)(AHD, p.943)(AP, 3/23/97) (HN, 3/23/98)
-------------------------

12-5-1956
East Pakistan was struck by a cyclone and tidal waves.
   (SC, internet, 5/12/97)
-------------------------
1956        
Khushwant Singh (1915-2014), Indian lawyer and journalist, authored "Train to Pakistan," a short, powerful novel about the horrors of partition, when colonial India was carved into modern India and Pakistan and about 1 million people died amid the chaos. It became a classic.
   (AP, 1/1/10)(Econ, 4/5/14, p.82)
-------------------------
29-9-1957
In Montgomery, West Pakistan (later renamed to Sahiwal, Pakistan), an express train collided with stationary oil train and 250 people were killed.
   (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)
-------------------------
7-10-1958
In Pakistan President Iskander Mirza abrogated the Constitution and declared Martial Law in the country. Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan was named chief martial law administrator.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayub_Khan)
-------------------------


27-10-1958
In Pakistan Field Marshal Muhammad Ayub Khan carried out the country’s first military coup. He announced that "our ultimate aim is to restore democracy but of the type that people can understand." Corruption had become so widespread within the national and civic systems of administration that Ayub Khan was welcomed as a national hero by the people. This launched more than a decade of military rule.
   (www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A065)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A22)
-------------------------


11-6-1960
In Pakistan a house packed with wedding celebrants collapsed killing 30.
   (SC, 6/11/02)
-------------------------
19-9-1960
India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty.
   (Econ, 5/22/10, SR p.18)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Waters_Treaty)
-------------------------
11-10-1960
A hurricane ravaged East Pakistan  and some 6,000 died.
   (MC, 10/11/01)
-------------------------
1960        
Islamabad was designed as a forward capital of Pakistan to replace Karachi. Islamabad and the ancient Gakhar city of Rawalpindi stand side by side, displaying the country’s past and present.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamabad)
-------------------------
1963 Mar,
Pakistan and China signed a historic border agreement. Three years later, the two countries agreed to construct a road that would provide a hitherto non-existent road-link for mutual benefit. In 1978 the Karakoram Highway from Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, was completed.
   (www.pakpost.gov.pk/philately/stamps2003/karakoram_highway.html)
-------------------------
20-5-1963
to :-   23-5-1963
In East Pakistan a cyclone killed about 22,000 along coast of the Bay of Bengal.
   (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)
-------------------------
1963        
Islamabad replaced Karachi as the capital of Pakistan.
   (http://wikitravel.org/en/Islamabad)
-------------------------
5-4-1965
The second Indo-Pakistani conflict began when fighting broke out in the Rann of Kachchh, a sparsely inhabited region along the West Pakistan-India border.
    (Encyclopaedia.com, 2002)
-------------------------
9-4-1965
Border fight between India and Pakistan.
   
-------------------------
25-5-1965
India and Pakistan engaged in border fights.
   (SC, 5/25/02)
-------------------------
6-8-1965
Indian troops invaded Pakistan. Indo-Pakistani fighting spread to Kashmir and to the Punjab, The 2nd Indo-Pakistani conflict started without a formal declaration of war. Skirmishes with Indian forces started as early as August 6 or 7.
   (http://ph.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858805.html)(MC, 8/6/02)

-------------------------

14-8-1965
The first major engagement between the regular armed forces of India and Pakistan took place. The next day, Indian forces scored a major victory after a prolonged artillery barrage and captured three important mountain positions in the northern sector. Later in the month, the Pakistanis counterattacked, moving concentrations near Tithwal, Uri, and Punch. Their move, in turn, provoked a powerful Indian thrust into Azad Kashmir. Other Indian forces captured a number of strategic mountain positions and eventually took the key Haji Pir Pass, eight kilometers inside Pakistani territory.
   (Encyclopaedia.com, 2002)(http://ph.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858805.html)
-------------------------

1:19-9-1965
Indian gains led to a major Pakistani counterattack in the southern sector, in Punjab, where Indian forces were caught unprepared and suffered heavy losses. The sheer strength of the Pakistani thrust, which was spearheaded by seventy tanks and two infantry brigades, led Indian commanders to call in air support. Pakistan retaliated on September 2 with its own air strikes in both Kashmir and Punjab.
   (http://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1900s/yr65/fkashmir1965)
   (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN, 9/6/98)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)(MC, 9/1/02)(Encyclopaedia.com, 2002)
-------------------------

20-9-1965
The India-Pakistani war was at the point of stalemate when the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution that called for a cease-fire. New Delhi accepted the cease-fire resolution on September 21 and Islamabad on September 22, and the war ended on September 23. The Indian side lost 3,000 while the Pakistani side suffered 3,800 battlefield deaths.
   (http://www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1900s/yr65/fkashmir1965)
-------------------------
22-9-1965
Pakistan agreed to the UN brokered cease-fire that India affirmed the day before. [see Jan 10, 1966]
   (HNQ, 4/26/99)
-------------------------
15-12-1965
In Karachi, Pakistan, a cyclone killed some 10,000 people.
   (www.emergency-management.net/cyclone.htm)
-------------------------

10-1-1966
The Tashkent Agreement, was signed in the Soviet city of Tashkent, and officially ended a 17-day war between Pakistan and India. It required that both sides withdraw by February 26, 1966, to positions held prior to August 5, 1965, and observe the cease-fire line agreed to on June 30, 1965. The agreement was brokered by Soviet premier Aleksey Kosygin and signed by Indian Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan President Ayub Khan. The Indian prime minister died the day after signing the agreement.
   (HNQ, 4/26/99)(www.onwar.com/aced/chrono/c1900s/yr65/fkashmir1965)
-------------------------

1967      
The Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) was formed under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
   (Econ, 7/8/06, Survey p.7)

-------------------------
1967      
Pakistan’s 7-year, $518 million Mangla Dam project on the River Jhelum was completed. Richard Byers (d.2004) served as chief project engineer for the Guy F. Atkinson Co.
   (www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/md.pdf)(SFC, 12/22/04, p.B4)
-------------------------

5-9-1968
Hijackers killed 21 people aboard a Pan Am jet in Karachi Pakistan.
   (MC, 9/5/01)
-------------------------

1968        
Baba Hassan Din, English convert to Sufism, died in Lahore, Pakistan. In the 1950’s he had adopted a boy named Hafiz Iqbal, and raised him to be a scholar. Both were later recognized as Sufi saints.
   (Econ, 12/20/08, p.73)
-------------------------

14-4-1969
Tornado struck Dacca in East Pakistan killing 540.
   (MC, 4/14/02)
-------------------------
1969-1971  
Gen. Yahya Khan led Pakistan’s military regime. “US Pres. Richard Nixon was fond of Gen. Yahya Khan, a gruff, dim-witted, whiskey drinking general.”
   (WSJ, 7/28/05, p.D8)(Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)    
-------------------------
28-6-1970 or  29-6-1970 :
Reinhold and Gunther Messner of Tyrol, Italy, reached the 26,650-foot peak of Nanga Parbat in northern Pakistan. Gunther (24) died during the descent. In 2005 Reinhold retrieved his brother’s remains.
   (WSJ, 12/10/03, p.A1)(SFC, 9/5/05, p.A2)
-------------------------

7-12-1970
In Pakistan polling began for 300 seats in the National Assembly. The Awami League, led by Sheik Mujibur Rahman, emerged as the single largest party in the National Assembly by winning 160 seats. It was also able to win 288 out of 300 seats in the East Pakistan Assembly. However, the party failed to win even a single seat in the four Provincial Assemblies of West Pakistan. The Pakistan People’s Party, led by landlord Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, won a majority in West Pakistan. Mr. Bhutto and military leader, Gen. Yahya Khan, refused to honor the results.
   (www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A140&Pg=2)(Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
-------------------------

1970      
Chester Bowles (1901-1986), former governor of Connecticut and US ambassador to India and Nepal (1951-1953), wrote a piece in the NY Times titled “Will We Ever Learn in Asia.” Here he outlined America’s alliance with Pakistan and prophesied that contradictions underlying the alliance would harm vital American interests.
   (SSFC, 1/6/08, p.E1)
-------------------------

1970s    
In the late 1970s Gen. Zia al-Huq enacted the Hudood Ordinances based on strict Islamic principles, which criminalized extramarital intimacy and left the burden of proof on rape victims.
   (SFC, 4/5/02, p.A10)
-------------------------
21-3-1971
Sheik Mujibur Rahman (Mujeeb-ur Rehman), head of the Awami League, declared East Pakistan (later Bangladesh) independent of Pakistan. Pakistani Pres. Yahya Khan ordered the army in; several million East Bengali refugees fled to India. Rahman was the father of later PM Hasina Wajid.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_Pakistan)(WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)
-------------------------
25-3-1971
Sheik Mujibur Rahman was arrested in Dhaka. Pakistani forces started Operation Searchlight, a systematic plan to eliminate any resistance. Thousands of people were killed in student dormitories and police barracks in Dhaka.
   (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971)
-------------------------

26-3-1971
East Pakistan proclaimed its independence, taking the name Bangladesh. [See Mar 21] This is considered the official Independence day of Bangladesh.
   (AP, 3/26/97)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bangladesh_Liberation_War)
-------------------------

27-3-1971
PM of India, Indira Gandhi, expressed full support of her government to the Bangladeshi struggle for independence. The Bangladesh-India border was opened to allow the Bangladeshi Refugees safe shelter in India.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971)
-------------------------


20-8-1971
Pakistani pilot Rashid Minhas (b.1951) foiled attempts by his instructor to defect with an air force plane to archrival India. To stop the escape, Minhas disabled the controls of the plane the two were flying, and died in the resulting crash.
   (AFP, 8/16/12)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rashid_Minhas)
-------------------------

3-12-1971
The 3rd Indo-Pakistani war began when India intervened in the Pakistani civil war. Pakistan attacked Indian airfields and India mobilized its army after nearly 10 million refugees poured into India. The India-Pakistani civil war ended with independence for East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.
   (SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(SFC, 6/12/99, p.A12)(SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)
-------------------------

6-12-1971
India recognized the Democratic Republic of Bangladesh and Pakistan broke off diplomatic relations. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
   (WUD, 1994, p. 1688)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)
-------------------------

6-12-1971
Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan following a 9-month war in a struggle led by Sheik Mujibar Rahman. Sheik Rahman was nominated as president on Dec 20 and released from prison on Dec 22; he returned to Bangladesh Jan 10.
   (SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-10)
-------------------------


16-12-1971
Pakistani forces in East Pakistan surrendered to the allied forces of India and Bangladesh, jointly known as the Mitro Bahini. Bangladesh gained independence. Bangladesh later accused Pakistan of war atrocities that led to the death of some 3 million people during the 9-month war.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971)(SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)
-------------------------

17-12-1971
A cease fire began between India and Pakistan in East Pakistan.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_War_of_1971)
-------------------------

20-12-1971
In Pakistan Ali Zulfikar Bhutto (1928-1979), a Sindhi landlord, took over as President and Chief Martial Law Administrator. He implemented a policy of quotas that promoted the Sindhi language and favored rural Sindhis over Urdu-speaking Muhajirs in university admissions and public sector jobs. This led to a student movement, led by Altaf Hussein and Farooq Sattar, that later became the Muttahida Qaumi Movement (MQM).
   (www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P019&Pg=2)(Econ, 5/25/13, p.44)
-------------------------

20-12-1971
Sheik Mujibar Rahman was nominated as president of Bangladesh. He was released from prison in Pakistan on Dec 22 and returned to Bangladesh Jan 10.
   (SFC, 5/21/96, p.A-10)
-------------------------

1971        
Pakistan’s Gen. Tikka Khan (1915-2002) led the crackdown against Bengali separatists. His tactics won him the name “Butcher of Bengal.” From 1972-1976 he served as Chief of the Army Staff under PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
   (SFC, 3/29/02, p.A24)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tikka_Khan)
-------------------------

1971        
The US under Pres. Nixon sent military planes and other material to Pakistan as East Pakistan fought for independence. Nixon, at the behest of national security advisor Henry Kisinger, also deployed a naval task force to the Bay of Bengal to intimidate India.
   (Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
-------------------------

1971      
Archer Blood, the senior US consul-general in Dhaka, sent regular, detailed and accurate reports of the bloodshed that was taking place in East Pakistan. In 2013 Gary Bass authored “The Blood Telegram: Nixon, MKissinger and the Forgotten Genocide.”
   (Econ, 9/21/13, p.90)
-------------------------

1971        
Following Pakistan’s defeat by India and Bangladesh in the Bangladesh war, Pakistan decided to develop a nuclear weapons program.
   (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)
-------------------------

1971      
Gholam Azom (aka Ghulam Azam b.1922)) led the Jamaat-e-Islami party. The party’s student wing organized a militia, called Al Badr, to support the West Pakistan army during the war for independence. As the former Ameer of Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh, Azom opposed the independence of Bangladesh during and after the 1971 war and led the formation of Shanti Committee, Razakar and Al-Badr to thwart the Mukti Bahini that fought for independence.
   {Pakistan, Bangladesh}
   (Econ, 3/26/11, p.49)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghulam_Azam)
-------------------------
2-7-1972
India and Pakistan signed the Simla Agreement that provided for a bilateral settlement of disputes and a "Line of Control" in Kashmir. Article 6 of the accord clearly states: "Both governments agree... to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalization of relations," including "a final settlement of the Jammu and Kashmir."
   {India, Pakistan, Kashmir}
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shimla_Agreement)(SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)
-------------------------

29-10-1972
Palestinian guerrillas killed an airport employee and hijacked a plane, carrying 27 passengers, to Cuba. They forced West Germany to release 3 terrorists who were involved in the Munich Massacre.
   (HN, 10/29/98)
-------------------------

1972        
A 675-page report on the 1971 Pakistani defeat by Indian forces was written by a commission under Justice Hamoodur Rahman and called the surrender of Pakistani forces in East Pakistan shameful. The report was not declassified until 2000.
   (SFC, 12/31/00, p.B3)
-------------------------

1973        
A constitution was written and gave parliament the authority to elect the president and prime minister. It was suspended by Gen. Musharraf in 1999.
   (SFC, 3/23/02, p.A13)
-------------------------
1973        
Kashmir Singh (b.1941) was arrested for espionage in the Pakistani city of Rawalpindi. His cover story was that he was a trader in electronic goods traveling on business. During his trial in the 1970s, Singh had repeatedly denied he was an agent for Indian military intelligence. Following his release in 2008 he admitted that he had been a spy.
   (AP, 3/8/08)
-------------------------

1973-1974    
In Pakistan sporadic fighting between the Baluchi insurgency and the army started in 1973. The largest confrontation took place in September 1974 when around 15,000 Balochs fought the Pakistani Army and the Air Force.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baloch_Insurgency_and_Rahimuddin's_Stabilization)
-------------------------
1973-1979  
Some 15,000 Balochi men, women and children were killed by the Pakistan army and the Frontier Corps.
   (www.tribuneindia.com/2005/20050124/nation.htm)
-------------------------
1-1-1974
Nawab Akbar Shahbaz Khan Bugti (1927-2006), governor of Balochistan, Pakistan, resigned shortly after Bhutto launched an army operation in Balochistan. The army had deployed 100,000 men in Baluchistan and with the help of the Iranian air force killed large numbers of Baluchis.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nawab_Akbar_Bugti)
-------------------------
22-2-1974
Pakistan officially recognized Bangladesh.
   (http://pakistanspace.tripod.com/74.htm)(http://tinyurl.com/58uluz)
-------------------------
1974        Sep,
In Pakistan the army put down a tribal rebellion in Baluchistan, reportedly leaving about 3,000 dead. Some 15,000 Balochs fought the Pakistani Army and the Air Force.
   (AP, 8/28/06)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baloch_Insurgency_and_Rahimuddin's_Stabilization)
-------------------------
30-11-1974
India and Pakistan in accordance with the Simla Agreement, signed a Protocol for Trade. This Protocol ended a 10-year trade ban and expired in 1978.
   (http://publishedforscholar.wordpress.com/2006/12/18/india-pakistan-relations/)
-------------------------
28-12-1974
The 6.0 Patan earthquake in Pakistan killed some 5,300 people.
   (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/world/events/1974_12_28.php)
-------------------------
1974        
The Pakistan People’s Party under PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto passed a constitutional amendment to declare Ahmadis to be ‘non-Muslim’ through a constitutional amendment.
   (http://ahmadiyyatimes.blogspot.com/2010/06/pakistan-since-second-amendment.html)
-------------------------
1975        
Pakistan’s PM Zulfikar Ali Bhuto created a political cell within the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) through an executive order. The cell monitors Pakistani politics and politicians.
   (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A6)
-------------------------
1975        
Pakistan’s atomic development program took off with the return of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan (b.1935), a Belgian trained metallurgist. China was reported to have supplied highly enriched uranium and a nuclear bomb design. Khan was convicted in absentia by the Netherlands in 1983 for stealing confidential material, but the conviction was later overturned on a technicality. Khan retired in 2001.
   (SFC, 5/28/98, p.A9)(ST, 1/28/04, p.A9)
-------------------------
1-4-1976
Pakistan’s PM Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto appointed Zia-ul-Haq as Chief of Army Staff, ahead of a number of more senior officers.
   (www.elections.com.pk/candidatedetails.php?id=6887)
-------------------------
7-3-1977
Ali Bhutto's Pakistan People's Party won elections.
   (www.storyofpakistan.com/articletext.asp?artid=A142)
-------------------------
5-7-1977
Pakistan's army under Gen Mohammad Zia ul-Haq seized power. The civilian government was ousted by the military and martial law was imposed.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.B3)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(www.ppp.org.pk/history.html)
-------------------------

1977        Oct,
Pakistan’s Gen. Zia ul-Haq (1924-1988) announced the postponement of the electoral plan and decided to start an accountability process of the politicians.
   (www.storyofpakistan.com/person.asp?perid=P020&Pg=2)
-------------------------

1977        
Pakistan’s Gen. Zia-ul-Haq said: "The survival of this country lies in democracy and democracy alone."
   (SFEC, 11/21/99, p.A22)
-------------------------
6-9-1978
James Wickwire of Seattle and Louis Reichardt of San Francisco became the first Americans to reach the summit of Pakistan's K-2, the world's second-highest mountain.
   (AP, 9/6/03)
-------------------------
2-12-1978
Pakistan’s General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq delivered a nationwide address on the occasion of the first day of the Hijra calendar. He did this in order to usher in an Islamic system.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zia-ul-Haq%27s_Islamization)
-------------------------
1978        
The Karakoram Highway from Kashgar, China, to the edge of Rawalpindi, Pakistan, was completed.
   (NH, 5/96, p.9)
-------------------------
1978
The Islamic law of hudood was enacted to ban “all forms of adultery, whether the offense is committed with or without the consent of the parties.”
   (SFC, 5/17/02, p.A12)
-------------------------
1978-2008    
India over this period exchanged 949 Pakistani fishermen in exchange for 2,304 Indian fishermen, which each side had apprehended for wandering into their respective waters in the disputed Sir Creek area. In early 2009 trade unions said India still held 357 Pakistani fishermen and that Pakistan held 48 Indian fishermen.
   (WSJ, 1/13/08, p.A10)
-------------------------
4-4-1979
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (51), the deposed prime minister of Pakistan, was hanged after he was convicted of conspiring to murder a political opponent.
   (AP, 4/4/99)(HN, 4/4/99)
-------------------------

6-4-1979
The U.S. cut off aid to Pakistan, because of that country’s covert construction of a uranium enrichment facility.
   (HNQ, 11/14/99)
-------------------------


21-11-1979
A mob attacked the US Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan, killing two Americans.
   (AP, 11/21/99)

-------------------------
1979        
Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, military dictator of Pakistan, began his Islamization program. It declared drinking a “heinous crime” punishable by public flogging and led many people to turn to drugs.
   (SFC, 4/20/00, p.A16)

-------------------------

1979      
Pakistan introduced the Hudood ordinances, which included a clause stating that to prove rape, a woman must have at least 4 male witnesses. If the woman fails to provide proof, she herself faces the charge of adultery.
   (SSFC, 7/9/06, p.A18)

-------------------------
1979        
Refugee camps were established around Peshawar, Pakistan, for those fleeing Afghanistan following the Soviet invasion.
   (SSFC, 9/30/01, p.A19)
-------------------------

1979        
Abdus Salam (1926-1990), Pakistan-born physicist, shared the Nobel Prize in physics with Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg for work on unifying the electromagnetic force and the weak nuclear force.
   (SFC, 11/22/96, p.A28)(www.nobelprizes.com/nobel/physics/1979b.html)
-------------------------
1979-1988  
Under the rule of Gen. Mohammed Zia al-Huq madrassas (religious schools) were established among the refugees to help repel the presumed threat of Communism.
   (WSJ, 10/2/01, p.A14)
-------------------------
13-1-1980
The United States offered Pakistan a two-year aid plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan.
   (HN, 1/13/99)
-------------------------
1980        
The Nazoo Anna School was founded in Peshawar, Pakistan, for girls from Afghan refugee camps by Nazaneen Jabarkhel Majeed. It was named after a female Afghan freedom fighter.
   (SFC, 7/16/99, p.A10)
-------------------------
1980      
Pakistan made the payment of zakat, 2.5 percent religious tax, to the government mandatory for Sunni Muslims under the military dictator Gen. Zia-ul-Haq, one of a variety of actions he took in an attempt to make the state more religious.
   (AFP, 8/17/12)
-------------------------

1980        
Pakistan was established a national sharia court during the rule of military dictator Ziaul Haq as part of a sweeping Islamization of Pakistan's institutions.
   (AFP, 12/30/13)
-------------------------

1980        
The Pakistan Penal Code (PPC) and the Criminal Procedure Code were amended, through ordinances in 1980, 1982 and 1986 to declare anything implying disrespect to Muhammad, Ahle Bait (family of the prophet), Sahaba (companions of the prophet) and Sha'ar-i-Islam (Islamic symbols), a cognizable offence.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zia-ul-Haq%27s_Islamization)
-------------------------

2-3-1981
A Pakistan Airways Boeing 720 was hijacked by 3 Pakistani terrorists. The passengers and crew were released March 15 in Syria.
   (http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/15/newsid_2818000/2818437.stm)
-------------------------

1981        
In Pakistan Nawaz Sharif (31) was appointed by General Zia ul-Haq as the finance minister of Punjab state.
   (WSJ, 9/5/07, p.A4)
-------------------------
1981        
Since this year the government of Pakistan has not taken a national census.
   (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-1)
-------------------------
1981-1988  
Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and the US CIA carried out massive covert operations against Soviet forces in Afghanistan.
   (WSJ, 12/31/08, p.A6)
-------------------------
1982        
Pakistan acquired several nuclear-capable missiles from China shortly after the US sold F-16 fighter planes to Taiwan.
   (SFC, 5/14/98, p.A16)
-------------------------
1982-1986    
Benazir Bhutto lived in exile in England.
   (WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A18)
-------------------------
30-12-1983
A 7.2 earthquake killed 26 people in Afghanistan (14) and Pakistan (12).
   (SFC, 3/5/02, p.A10)
-------------------------
1983        
In Pakistan the Mohajir Qami Movement was founded to represent the Mohajirs. In Karachi the Mohajirs comprised 60% of the population.
   (SFC, 2/12/98, p.C3)
-------------------------
1984        Apr,
India sent troops to occupy the Siachen glacier following suspicious mountaineering expeditions from Pakistan. Over the next 15 years some 10,000 Indian and Pakistani casualties, largely due to frostbite and mountain sickness, resulted.
   (SFEC, 5/16/99, p.A25)
-------------------------
1985        Feb,
In Pakistan Mohammed Khan was elected prime minister in the first elections since imposition of martial law in 1977. Benazir Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party boycotted the elections.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
1985      
In Pakistan Nawaz Sharif (31) became chief minister of Punjab state during a period of martial law.
   (WSJ, 9/5/07, p.A4)
-------------------------
1985        
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was founded in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of promoting economic cooperation and alleviating poverty in South Asia. Members included Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
   (AP, 11/13/05)
-------------------------
1985        
India built up its nuclear capabilities and refused Pakistan’s offers of mutual inspections and nonproliferation pledges.
   (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A15)
-------------------------
1986        Jan,
The first PC virus, called Brain, was discovered in the wild. Though it achieved fame because it was the first of its type, the virus was not widespread as it could only travel by hitching a ride on floppy disks swapped between users. The first virus to hit computers running a Microsoft Corp.'s operating system (DOS) came when two brothers in Pakistan wrote a boot sector program now dubbed "Brain," purportedly to punish people who spread pirated software.
   (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/4630910.stm)(AP, 9/1/07)
-------------------------
1986        Mar,
Pakistan acquired weapons-grade uranium.
   (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A15)
-------------------------
10-4-1986
Benazir Bhutto (33), daughter of former PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, returned to Pakistan.
   (http://tinyurl.com/onqk2)
-------------------------
14-8-1986
Pakistani opposition leader Benazir Bhutto was arrested.
   (http://tinyurl.com/yynudk)
-------------------------
5-9-1986
The Pakistan army stormed a hijacked US B-747 in Karachi and 22 people were killed. In 2001 Zayd Hassan Abd Al-latif Masud Al Safarini, jailed in Pakistan for 15 years, arrived in Alaska and was expected to face a 1991 indictment for the 1986 hijacking of a Pan Am jet. In 2003 Safarini pleaded guilty and agreed to 3 life sentences plus 25 years. On Jan 3, 2008, Pakistani authorities freed and deported four Palestinians convicted in the hijacking.
   (SFC, 10/2/01, p.A3)(SFC, 12/17/03, p.A4)(AP, 9/5/06)(AP, 1/3/08)
-------------------------
1986      
Pakistan introduced its anti-blasphemy law. It made defaming Islam punishable by death. The law was adopted by Pakistani-administered Kashmir in 1993.
   (AFP, 3/15/12)
-------------------------
1987        Jun,
Pakistan sentenced Gopal Das, an Indian man, to life in prison for alleged spying. In 2011 PM Zardari remitted Gopal Das' prison sentence on humanitarian grounds in response to an unusual appeal by the Indian Supreme Court.
   (AP, 3/27/11)
-------------------------
18-12-1987
Pakistani opposition leader Benazir Bhutto was married in a traditional Islamic ceremony to businessman Asif Ali Zardari.
   (AP, 12/18/97)
-------------------------
1987      
Pakistan claimed a nuclear bomb-building capability.
   (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A15)
-------------------------
1987        
Iran acquired centrifuge designs for a uranium enrichment program that was similar to technology used in Pakistan.
   (SFC, 11/28/03, p.A3)
-------------------------
10-1-1988
In Pakistan Farooq Sattar (28), a founding member of the MQM, became Karachi’s youngest mayor.
   (WSJ, 12/5/07, p.A22)(http://tinyurl.com/36566r)
-------------------------

14-4-1988
Afghanistan, Pakistan, the United States and the Soviet Union signed agreements providing for the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan and creation of a nonaligned Afghan state. Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The Soviets pulled out of Afghanistan after nine years of fighting. Afghan rebels rejected the pact and continued fighting.
   (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(WA, 1997,p.737)(TMC, 1994, p.1988)(AP, 4/14/98)
-------------------------

29-4-1988
Pres. Zia-ul Haq dismissed the government Mohammed Khan Junejo on charges of incompetence.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------

29-5-1988
Pakistan Pres. Zia ul-Haq fired government and disbanded the parliament.
   (SC, 5/29/02)
-------------------------

17-8-1988
Pakistani President Mohammad Zia ul-Haq (63) and US Ambassador Arnold Raphel were killed in a mysterious plane crash. Zia, president from 1977-1988, was responsible for the 1977 overthrow and 1979 death of Premier Bhutto. Zia did much to turn Pakistan towards Islamic fundamentalism. Bhutto’s daughter, Benazir Bhutto, became prime minister in November.
   (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-1)(AP, 8/17/98)(Econ, 6/14/08, p.103)
-------------------------

16-11-1988
Voters in Pakistan cast ballots in their first open election in 11 years, resulting in victory for populist candidate Benazir Bhutto.
   (AP, 11/15/98)
-------------------------

19-11-1988
Benazir Bhutto was elected Prime Minister of Pakistan.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------

1-12-1988
Benazir Bhutto was named 1st female PM of a Moslem country, Pakistan.
   (www.cnn.com/resources/video.almanac/1988/index.html)
-------------------------

2-12-1988
Benazir Bhutto was sworn in as prime minister of Pakistan.
   (AP, 12/2/98)
-------------------------

1988        Dec,
Tahir Mirza Hussain (18), a British Pakistani visiting relatives near Chakwal, Pakistan, was physically and sexually assaulted by a taxi driver with a gun. A struggle followed during which the gun went off and driver Jamshad Khan was fatally injured. Hussein reported the incident to police and was arrested. In 1989 he was sentenced to death. In May, 1996, a high court acquitted him of all charges, but an Islamic court charged him with armed robbery and in August, 1998, he was again sentenced to death.
   (SSFC, 5/21/06, p.A16)
-------------------------

1988        
Benazir Bhutto (b.1953) authored her autobiography. She served 2 terms as prime minister of Pakistan (1988-1990, 1993-1996).  In 2007 she published an update.
   (Econ, 5/12/07, p.89)
-------------------------

1988        
In Peshawar, Pakistan, “The Essential Guide for Preparation” by Sayyid Imam al-Sharif (b.~1950), aka Dr. Fadl, appeared and became one of the most important texts in training for jihadis. Sayyid Imam al-Sharif, a co-founder of al-Qaida, was jailed in Yemen in 2001 and transferred to Egypt in 2004, where he changed his radical position and published "Document of Right Guidance for Jihad Activity in Egypt and the World," also transliterated as "Rationalizing Jihad in Egypt and the World". In it he proclaimed “We are prohibited from committing aggression, even if the enemies of Islam do that.”
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sayyed_Imam_Al-Sharif)
-------------------------

1988      
Rafiq Tarar, a Tablighi Muslim, was elected by the Parliament under PM Nawaz Sharif.
   (SFC, 11/3/01, p.A7)
-------------------------
1988      
Pakistan's main spy agency (ISI) gave military training to Kashmiri rebels (JKLF) battling security forces in Indian-administered Kashmir. ISI training ended in 1989. The information was only made public in 2005 by JKLF leader Amanullah Khan in the 1st volume of his Urdu-language biography "Jehed-e-Musalsal" (Continuous Struggle).
   (Reuters, 6/17/05)
-------------------------
1988-1998    
The fighting in Kashmir left 300,000 dead over this period.
   (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)
-------------------------
12-2-1989
In Pakistan 5 Moslem rioters were killed in Islamabad protesting the "Satanic Verses" novel.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Satanic_Verses_(novel))
-------------------------
2-6-1989
Prime Minister Bhutto told a joint session of the US Congress that Pakistan does not have nuclear weapons.
   (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)
-------------------------

24-11-1989
In Peshawar, Pakistan, Abdulla Yusuf Azzam, a Palestinian intellectual, was assassinated in a car bombing reportedly ordered by Osama bin Laden for suspected CIA ties.
   (SFC, 8/19/98, p.A16)
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abdullah_Yusuf_Azzam)
-------------------------
1989        Nov,
Rebellion erupted in India-held Kashmir and small arms sniping between Indian soldiers and rebels became routine. Many of the Islamic separatists trained in Pakistan
   (SFC, 6/12/99, p.A12)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)
-------------------------

1989        
Mohammad Ahsan Dar founded Hizbul Mujahedeen for Kashmir Muslim fighters. The group went under the wing of Jamaat-e-Islami (JI), Pakistan’s best connected Islamic political party.
   (WSJ, 10/12/01, p.A6)
-------------------------

1989        
Lashker-e-Tayyaba was created in Pakistan to fight against India in Kashmir. Pres. Musharraf banned Lashker-e-Tayyaba in January, 2002, under pressure from the US.
   (SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)
-------------------------
1989        
Pakistan ordered 60 F-16 fighter jets from the US and paid for 28 of them. The US Congress stopped the sale in 1990.
   (SFC, 12/3/98, p.A18)
-------------------------

4-1-1990
In Sindh Province, Pakistan, an overcrowded 16-car passenger train collided with standing freight train and more than 210 people were killed.
   (SFC, 6/4/98, p.A15)(AP, 2/18/04)
-------------------------
1990        Jan,
India opened fire in Kashmir. Over 30,000 people were killed over the next 12 years.
   (SSFC, 12/30/01, p.A22)
-------------------------
7-2-1990
In Pakistan riots broke out between rival political parties and 22 people were hurt.
   (http://tinyurl.com/htbtm)
-------------------------

1990        Jul,
A bomb blast in the eastern city of Lahore killed a woman and 3 men. Sarabjit Singh was later arrested, convicted and sentenced to death for the bombing. In 2005 his death sentence was upheld. Relatives said he is a farmer who crossed the border into Pakistan while drunk, and then was confused with a man named Manjit Singh, whom Pakistan blames for a series of bombings in Lahore. In 2012 President Asif Ali Zardari commuted the death sentence of Sarabjit Singh to life in prison, the equivalent of time served in this case.
   (AFP, 9/27/05)(AP, 6/26/12)
-------------------------
6-8-1990
Pakistan’s PM Benazir Bhutto was ousted after 20 months in office by Pres. Ghulam Ishaq Khan on charges of incompetence and corruption. An interim government was led by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi. It was later estimated that $1.5 billion was received in bribes, kickbacks and commissions from a variety of enterprises.
   (SFC, 11/5/96, p.A9)(SFC, 8/20/98, p.B10)
-------------------------

24-10-1990
Nawaz Sharif’s nine-party Democratic Alliance won a 2/3 majority in the National Assembly.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
1990        Nov,
Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s Party lost elections that put Nawaz Sharif into power with a 2/3 majority.
   (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)
-------------------------
1990        
Some 70 tons of hashish was transported across the country by camel and loaded onto 2 freighters. 28 tons were loaded onto the freighter Saratoga Success, which collided with another ship and after 2 typhoons ended up beached in the Philippines. The freighter Lucky Star left Pakistan in 1991 with the other 48 tons and stopped to pick up the 28 tons on the Saratoga. The final destination was Vancouver, BC, but US federal agents intercepted the $250 million shipment.
   (SFC, 4/19/97, p.C1)
-------------------------
1990        
Pres. Bush imposed sanctions against Pakistan under the 1986 Pressler Amendment when he was unable to certify that Pakistan did not have a nuclear bomb. This stopped the sale of 28 F-16 airplanes to Pakistan for which $658 million was already paid to General Dynamics. Pakistan had ordered and paid for 71 F-16 fighter bombers. $157 million was returned. In 1998 New Zealand agreed to lease the planes for about $105 million and the money to be paid to Pakistan.
   (SFC, 5/9/97, p.E2)(SFC, 5/29/98, p.A15)(SFC, 12/3/98, p.A18)
-------------------------
1-2-1991
Afghanistan and Pakistan were hit by an earthquake and 1,200 died.
   (http://tinyurl.com/dsnjk)
-------------------------
1991        
Pakistan’s government sent  troops to Karachi to quell rising violence. Since then the MQM abandoned democracy and took to the streets in an insurrection.
   (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-6)
-------------------------
1-1-1992
Altaf Hussain (b.1953), leader of Pakistan’s MQM party, fled to Saudi Arabia and after a month to London. PM Nawaz Sharif soon deployed the army to Karachi for a massive anti-MQM operation and the city descended into an undeclared civil war.
   (WSJ, 12/5/07, p.A22)(www.elections.com.pk/candidatedetails.php?id=6881)
-------------------------
28-9-1992
A Pakistani jetliner crashed in Nepal, killing all 167 people aboard. The crew had miscalculated their altitude.
   (AP, 9/28/97)(SFC, 11/13/01, p.A10)
-------------------------
1992        
The Pakistan Cricket team led by Imran Khan won the World Cup Championship.
   (WSJ, 12/2/96, p.A1,8)
-------------------------
1992        
The radical Islamic Movement for the Enforcement of Islam in English was founded.
   (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A10)
-------------------------

1992      
Ramzi Yousef, nephew of Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Khaled Sheikh Mohammed), dispatched from Pakistan a childhood friend Abdul Hakim Murad to the US to begin plotting the 1st World Trade Center attack.
   (WSJ, 8/6/04, p.A6)
-------------------------
8-1-1993
Asif Nawaz Khan Janjua (56), Pakistan’s 10th Chief of Army, died under mysterious circumstances while jogging near his home in Rawalpindi. His widow later accused the government of poisoning her husband.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asif_Nawaz)(www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-14397943.html)
-------------------------
1993        Mar,
Benazir Bhutto began a campaign to oust Nawaz Sharif.
   (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)
-------------------------
18-4-1993
Nawaz Sharif’s government was dismissed by Ishaq Khan on corruption charges. The interim government was led by Balkh Sher Mazari.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------

26-5-1993
The Supreme Court restored the government of Nawaz Sharif.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
1993        Jun 5,
In Somalia, militiamen loyal to Mohamed Farrah Aidid killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.
   (AP, 6/5/98)
-------------------------
18-7-1993
Shariq and Ishaq Khan resigned under army pressure. An interim government, headed by former world bank v.p. Moeen Qureshi, called for new elections.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
25-8-1993
The United States applied limited sanctions against China and Pakistan after concluding the Chinese had sold M-11 missile technology to the Pakistanis.
   (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A4)(AP, 8/25/98)
-------------------------


9-9-1993
About a hundred Somali gunmen and civilians were killed when U.S. and Pakistani peacekeepers fired on Somalis attacking other peacekeepers.
   (AP, 9/9/98)
-------------------------

7-10-1993
Bhutto returned to power after general elections. Nov, Benazir Bhutto was re-elected to office. Murtazza Bhutto, brother of Benazir Bhutto, returned after 16 years in Syria to challenge his sister for the leadership of the ruling party.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)(WSJ, 11/5/96, p.A18)
-------------------------

19-10-1993
Benazir Bhutto was returned to the premiership of Pakistan.
   (AP, 10/19/98)

-------------------------
1993      
Pakistan halted the repatriation process of Urdu speakers from Bangladesh, saying it did not have the money or land to house them. This left some 250,000 refugees and their descendants to languish in 70 government-run camps across Bangladesh.
   (AP, 6/14/14)
-------------------------
1993      
Greg Mortenson of Bozeman, Montana, first visited Pakistan to climb K2, the world’s 2nd highest peak. He failed in climbing the mountain but became interested in the region. In 1996  he built a school in Korphe, Pakistan, the first many. By 2008 he had built 55 schools and authored the memoir: “Three Cups of Tea: One Man’s Extraordinary Journey to promote Peace… One School at a Time” (2006). In 2011 a 60 Minute TV report said most of his story appears to have been fabricated.
   (http://tinyurl.com/42ffko2)(SSFC, 4/6/03, Par p.5)(Econ, 5/3/08, p.92)
-------------------------
20-2-1994
Three armed Afghans seized a school bus in Islamabad with some 70 passengers including Pakistani children.
   (http://lists.asu.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind9402c&L=pakistan&T=0&F=&S=&P=452)
-------------------------
1994        Apr,
In Afghanistan about this time Mohammed Omar (b.1959), former guerrilla commander against Soviet forces, gathered a group of former guerrillas in the village of Singesar and hung the mujahedeen responsible for the rape of 2 local girls. He soon led the Taliban (The Students) as Amir-ul-Momineen (Commander of the Faithful). The Taliban militia advanced rapidly against the Islamic government.
   (SFC, 1/1/97, p.C2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taliban)
-------------------------
1994        Sep,
Naseerullah Baber, Pakistan’s interior minister, arranged a peace convoy to run rice, clothing and other gifts through Afghanistan to Turkmenistan.
   (SFC, 1/1/97, p.C3)

-------------------------

1994        Sep,
The Taliban was formed in southern Afghanistan. Its fighters were initially trained by the Frontier Constabulary, a paramilitary force of Pakistan’s Interior Ministry (ISI). Taliban forces captured the southern town of Kandahar. 800 truckloads of arms and ammunition were gained from a Soviet cache. They continued to gain land over the next 2 years. The Taliban took Kabul in 1996.
   (SFC, 9/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 1/1/97,p.C3)(SSFC, 7/30/06, p.A10)    (WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A6)(Econ, 2/9/13, p.44)
-------------------------


1994      
The Indian Parliament unanimously decided that its goal was to extend its rule to all of “Pakistan-occupied Kashmir.”
   (SFC, 6/4/98, p.C2)
-------------------------

1994        
Pakistan’s military purchased three Agosta 90 B submarines from France. PM Edouard Balladur’s 1995 campaign for the French presidency was later suspected of having been financed in part from kickbacks in the submarine sale.
   (AP, 6/25/09)(www.digitaljournal.com/article/274427)(Econ, 10/1/11, p.54)
-------------------------
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: History of Pakistan   History of Pakistan Icon_minitimeالأحد يونيو 15, 2014 6:17 pm


3-3-1995
A car bomb exploded in Karachi, Pakistan, at a Shiite mosque and 10 people were killed.
   (www.dawn.com/2004/06/09/local4.htm)
-------------------------
8-3-1995
Two United States diplomats were killed, one injured, when their car was ambushed as they were driving to the U.S. Consulate in Karachi, Pakistan.
   (AP, 3/8/00)
-------------------------

11-4-1995
Pres. Clinton expressed sympathy for Pakistan's anger over the blocked sale of American fighter jets, telling visiting PM Benazir Bhutto that it was "not right" for the United States to keep the planes and refuse to give the money back. Pakistan received jets in 2005
   (AP, 4/11/00)(Reuters, 3/26/05)
-------------------------

1995        Jul,
Pakistan’s PM Benazir Bhutto, under pressure from army commanders, began peace talks with the MQM. The talks foundered, then restarted, only to reach another deadlock. At year's end the two sides were still hurling accusations at each other.
   (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9112820/PAKISTAN)

-------------------------

1995        Jul,
Four hostages: Donald Hutchings, Keith Mangan, Paul Wells and Dirk Hasert were seized by Kashmir guerillas, who call themselves Al Faran. In May ‘96 a Muslim insurgent, who claimed to have been involved, said the men were killed and buried in the mountains in Dec. The captured rebel Nasir Mehmood said in a police report that the hostages were killed Dec 13, 1995 by guerrillas of Harkat-ul-Ansar, a group based in Pakistan. The Al Faran name was coined to confuse Indian authorities.
   (SFC, 5/27/96, p.A6)(SFC, 12/23/96, p.A12)(SFC, 4/898, p.A12)
-------------------------

1995         Oct,
The government of Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto devalued the currency and imposed a temporary tariff on imports.
   (WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-6)
-------------------------
19-11-1995
A suicide bomber of the Egyptian Jihad self-destructed in the Egyptian embassy in Islamabad and killed 15 others. 59 were wounded. Islamic militants opposed to the Cairo regime claimed responsibility.
   (WSJ, 11/20/95, p.A-1)(MC, 11/19/01)(WSJ, 7/2/02, p.A8)
-------------------------
1995         Dec,
A car bomb killed at least 25 and injured more than 100 in the heart of Peshawar’s market district.
   (WSJ, 12/22/95, p.A-1)
-------------------------
1995        
In Pakistan PM Bhutto launched another crackdown in Karachi against the MQM.
   (WSJ, 12/5/07, p.A22)
-------------------------
1995        
In Karachi, Pakistan, unidentified gunmen bound, blindfolded and shot to death 15 migrant workers. The government blamed the deaths on the Mohajir Qaumi Movement (MQM). Mohajirs are Indian Muslims who came to Karachi when Pakistan was founded. The leader of the MQM was Altaf Hussain, who lived in exile in London.
   (V. Sun, 11/3/95, p.A-16)(WSJ, 12/14/95, p.A-6)
-------------------------
1995        
A coup attempt by Islamic radical was foiled. 23 military officers were arrested and jailed.
   (SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A25)
-------------------------
1995      
In Pakistan Dassault Aviation of France agreed to pay Asif Zardari and a partner $200 million for a $4 billion jet fighter contract. The deal fell apart When Bhutto’s government was dismissed.
   (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A8)
-------------------------

1995      
Washington said Pakistan received M-11 missiles from China, capable of carrying nuclear warheads. [see Jun 13, 1996]
   (SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A15)

-------------------------
1995        
Shahnawaz Toor, a worker for the US Drug Enforcement Agency, was murdered in Karachi. In 1998 Saulat Mirza, a member of the Muttahida Qaumi Movement, was arrested for the murder.
   (SFC, 12/12/98, p.B2)
-------------------------

1995        
In eastern Pakistan several gunmen shot at a crowd of Shiite Muslims in the Punjab provincial town of Jhang. In 2006 a judge sentenced Aslam Moyavia, a Sunni Muslim extremist, to death for the killing.
   (AP, 6/13/06)
-------------------------
21-3-1996
The US decided to proceed with plans to deliver weapons to the Islamabad government. $368 mil has already been paid for a naval Orion aircraft and two types of missiles.
   (WSJ, 3/21/96, p.A-1)

-------------------------
1996        Mar,
The Supreme Court warned Benazir Bhutto against interfering in the appointment of judges.
   (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)
-------------------------
18-4-1996
The US government will deliver $368 million in military equipment to Pakistan that was paid for in the 1980’s. Pakistan will also get $120 mil in cash that it paid for weapons and spare parts that were never manufactured.
   (SFC, 4/18/96, p.A-8)

-------------------------

25-4-1996
In Pakistan the Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI - Movement for Justice) party was founded by Imran Khan.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pakistan_Tehreek-e-Insaf)

-------------------------
28-4-1996
In Pakistan a bomb killed 40 people aboard a bus traveling home for a Muslim festival in a town southeast of Lahore. They were going home to celebrate the most sacred holiday in Islam, Eid al-Adha, the Feast of Sacrifice.
   (SFC, 5/5/96, p.T-9)
-------------------------
8-5-1996
A bomb killed at least 6 and injured 38 aboard a bus in Punjab province.
   (WSJ, 5/9/96, p.A-1)
-------------------------
10-6-1996
Three bombings killed 6 and injured 48 in Punjab Province.
   (WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A1)
-------------------------
13-6-1996
A Washington Times report said that Chinese M-11 missiles have been deployed in Pakistan in the last few months.
   (WSJ, 6/13/96, p.A1,4)
-------------------------


26-6-1996
In Afghanistan guerrilla leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, head of Hezbi-Islami, having been eliminated as a military power, signed a peace pact with Rabbani, and returned to Kabul to rule as prime minister. Hekmatyar was a member of the dominant Pashtun group, unlike Rabanni and military commander Ahmad Shah Massoud who belong to the Tajik ethnic group. The Taliban militia launched an assault that killed 54 and wounded 118 people. Pakistan’s spy service (ISI) had helped form the Taliban movement.
   (www.afghan-web.com/history/)(WSJ, 6/27/96, p.A1)(SFC, 9/23/96, A12) (Econ, 2/9/13, p.44)
-------------------------

23-7-1996
A bomb killed 9 at Lahore Int’l. airport in the Punjab province. It was the 13 bombing in the Punjab this year.
   (WSJ, 7/23/96, p.A1)
-------------------------
1996        Jul,
Shabana Akhtar was the 1st-ever Pakistani athlete to compete in the Olympics.
   (AFP, 9/5/04)
-------------------------
18-8-1996
In Pakistan 18 people were killed when 7 masked gunmen opened fire on a group of Shiite worshipers in central Punjab province. 100 were injured. The militant Sunni group Sipah-e-Sahaba, or Guardians of the Friends of the prophet were blamed.
   (SFC, 8/19/96, p.A9)
-------------------------
30-8-1996
The US State Dept. sent a diplomatic note to China protesting the sale of equipment for use in nuclear facilities in Pakistan.
   (SFC, 10/10/96, p.A12)
-------------------------
31-8-1996
Over the past week more than a million Pakistanis were displaced by fierce floods. The central Punjab Province had 4.5 million acres of crops swamped.
   (SFC, 8/31/96, p.A4)
-------------------------

20-9-1996
Murtazza Bhutto, brother of Benazir Bhutto, and 6 followers were killed in a clash with police in Karachi, Pakistan. He led the Shaheed Bhutto faction of the Pakistan People’s Party.
   (SFC, 9/21/96, p.A10)
-------------------------
23-9-1996
Gunmen attacked a Sunni Muslim mosque and killed 16 and wounded 45 people. The attack followed the killing of a Shiite leader the night before in Bahawalpur.
   (SFC, 9/23/96, A12)
-------------------------
1996        Sep,
Greg Mortenson of Bozeman, Montana, founder of the Central Asia Institute (cai@ikat.org), built a school in Korphe, Pakistan. The project expanded to 28 school buildings, 15 water projects and 4 women’s vocational centers by 2003. Villages were required to increase girls’ enrollment by 10% a year.
   (SSFC, 4/6/03, Par p.5)
-------------------------
1996        Oct,
Opposition politicians staged protests and strikes that demanded the resignation of Prime Minister Bhutto.
   (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)
-------------------------
4-11-1996
Pres. Farooq Leghari dismissed Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto. Until new elections are held civilian administrators will run the show. He accused Ms. Bhutto of allowing corruption and nepotism to become widespread in the government. Her husband, Asif Ali Zardari, was held by police in Islamabad.
   (SFC, 11/5/96, p.A9)(WSJ, 11/6/96, p.A18)(SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
5-11-1996
Meraj Khalid was named interim prime minister.
   (SFC, 11/6/96, p.A21)
-------------------------
2-12-1996
Imran Khan, former cricket player, led the Movement for Justice Party and planned to run for prime minister.
   (WSJ, 12/2/96, p.A1)
-------------------------
19-12-1996
Benazir Bhutto’s husband, the former investment minister, was released from jail, and shortly after charged with the murder of Bhutto’s brother.
   (WSJ, 12/20/96, p.A1)
-------------------------

1996        
The United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan recognized the Taliban after they seized the Afghan capital Kabul. All three countries cut ties with the Taliban after it sheltered al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden following the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks on the US.
   (AP, 2/24/06)
-------------------------
6-1-1997
In Pakistan rulers established a security council to give the army an official role in running the country.
   (SFC, 1/7/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
8-1-1997
Gas cylinders aboard a truck leaked in Lahore and killed at least 30 people with 900 taken to hospitals. The gas was identified as either ammonia or chlorine.
   (WSJ, 1/10/97, p.A1)
-------------------------
29-1-1997
The Supreme Court upheld Bhutto’s dismissal and ordered new elections to proceed.
   (SFC, 1/30/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
4-2-1997
In Pakistan the Muslim League won elections with 140 of 217 parliament seats. Nawaz Sharif was re-elected as prime minister.
   (SFC, 2/5/97, p.A9)(WSJ, 9/5/07, p.A4)
-------------------------
28-2-1997
At 2:10 a.m. a 7.3 earthquake struck in Baluchistan. At least 8 people were killed and many injured. Reports next day indicated that some 80 people had died.
   (WSJ, 2/28/97, p.A1)(SFC, 3/1/97, p.C1)
-------------------------
3-3-1997
A train derailed in eastern Punjab just outside Khaniwal and at least 136 people were killed and 450 injured.
   (SFC, 3/4/97, p.A9)
-------------------------
7-8-1997
The US State Dept. expressed concern over reports of Chinese  nuclear-capable M-11 missiles sold to Pakistan.
   (SFC, 8/8/97, p.E3)
-------------------------
7-9-1997
In the disputed Kashmir region Indian and Pakistani gunners exchanged artillery fire and 14 villagers on the Pakistani side were reported killed and 5 were reported killed on the Indian side.
   (WSJ, 9/8/97, p.A16)
-------------------------

11-11-1997
In Pakistan 4 American oil company employees and their driver were shot dead in Karachi. It was believed to be a retaliation for the conviction of Amil Kasi for the 1993 murder of 2 CIA employees. Two gunmen were sentenced to death for the murders in 1999. [see Nov 12]
   (SFC,11/12/97, p.C14)(WSJ, 8/23/99, p.A1)
-------------------------


12-11-1997
Four U.S. businessmen and a Pakistani were killed by gunmen in Karachi, Pakistan, apparently in retaliation for the murder conviction of Mir Aimal Kasi in the shooting deaths of two CIA employees. [see Nov 11]
   (AP, 11/12/98)
-------------------------

2-12-1997
Prime Minister Nawaz Shariff prevailed over Pres. Farooq Leghari, who resigned. Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah was demoted by his colleagues on the nation’s Supreme Court.
   (SFC, 12/3/97, p.C2)
-------------------------

24-12-1997
Two trains collided at Rustam Sargana in the eastern Punjab and killed at least 35 people and injured 100.
   (SFC,12/26/97, p.B4)
-------------------------
31-12-1997
Rafiz Tarar won the presidential election with 374 votes in the National Assembly. He faced a Jan 12 court hearing on charges of defaming the judiciary last month. The Pakistan general election turnout was 34.4%.
   (SFC, 1/1/98, p.A17)(SFC, 10/11/02, p.A10)
-------------------------
1997      
Pakistan’s Nawaz Sharif and India’s Inder Kumar Gujral agreed to a process of dialogue, but relations soured after the BJP came to power in India.
   (Econ, 1/10/04, p.35)
-------------------------
1997        
In Pakistan Mohammed Ali Rahimi, director of the Iranian cultural center in Multan, was killed along with other Shiites by Sunni extremists. Shakeel Anwar (d.2002) was wanted for the killings.
   (SFC, 3/12/02, p.A10)
-------------------------
1997        
Hafiz Shafiur Rahman was arrested in Multan in eastern Pakistan weeks after he shot Ijaz Shah, the district president of Tehrik-e-Jaaferi, a political group representing minority Shiite Muslims. Rahman was convicted in 1999 and hanged in 2006.
   (AP, 8/9/06)
-------------------------


9-1-1998
From Pakistan it was reported that investigators have uncovered a pattern of secret payments by foreign governments for business favors during the 2 terms when Benazir Bhutto served as Prime Minister. These included a $10 million payment, deposited into a Asif Zardari account by a Middle East gold bullion dealer, for a monopoly contract to sustain Pakistan’s jewelry industry. Officials said $80 million may be in Swiss banks.
   (SFC, 1/9/98, p.A8)(WSJ, 1/9/98, p.A1)
-------------------------

11-1-1998
In Lahore, Pakistan, 24 Shiite Muslims  were killed in an attack by the Sipah-e-Sahabah (Friends of the Guardians of the Prophet), a militant Sunni group. The Shiites were at a ceremony marking the 2-year anniversary of the death of their teacher, Mohammed Hussein Rizwan.
   (SFC, 1/12/98, p.A10)
-------------------------

19-2-1998
Kanwar Ahson was arrested in Karachi, a Mohajir-dominated city of 14 million, for having sex outside of marriage with his lover Riffat Afridi, who was in hiding. The couple were of rival ethnic groups and the Afridi’s father refused to allow them to marry. They married last week and set off a riot where 2 people were killed and 8 injured.
   (SFC, 2/20/98, p.A14)

-------------------------
21-2-1998
Two Iranian engineers were killed in “sectarian violence.”
   (SFEC, 4/5/98, p.T14)
-------------------------
2-3-1998
At least 300 people were killed in flash floods in the Turbat district of southwestern Baluchistan province. 1,500 people were reported missing.
   (SFC, 3/6/98, p.A13)
-------------------------
23-3-1998
Rival groups clashed in Karachi and 17 people were killed.
   (SFEC, 4/5/98, p.T14)
-------------------------
6-4-1998
Pakistan reported a successful test of medium-range missile from its Kahuta nuclear research lab. It was capable of carrying nuclear warheads with a range of 900 miles.
   (SFC, 4/798, p.A16)(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.A15)
-------------------------
22-4-1998
It was reported that hundreds of schools in the Punjab have no students, but still collect money for nonexistent teachers. Shabaz Sharig, the chief minister of Punjab for less than a year, has called in the army to investigate. The literacy rate in Pakistan was 35% compared to 65% in India.
   (SFC, 4/22/98, p.A8)
-------------------------

25-4-1998
In July a Pakistani defector claimed that the military leadership of Pakistan decided to launch a pre-emptive nuclear attack on New Delhi within 48 hours. Dr. Iftikhar Khan Chaudry also claimed that Pakistan had already armed and deployed nuclear warheads at 2 sites along the Indian border. Chaudry (29) was described as a low-level engineer with no access to military planning data. Pakistani new media later said Chaudry was a low-level accountant at a bathroom fixtures company until Nov 1997, when he resigned. He was later identified as a fraud with no more than a high school education.
   (SFC, 7/2/98, p.A15)(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)(SFC, 7/3/98, p.D2)(SFC, 7/7/98, p.A9)

-------------------------

4-5-1998
The Clinton administration invoked sanctions against North Korea and Pakistan for a secret 1997 missile deal. Pakistan’s military named the acquired missile, Ghauri, after a famous Muslim warrior who slew a Hindu emperor named Prithvi, the name of a Russian made Indian missile.
   (SFC, 5/14/98, p.A16)

-------------------------

c7-5-1998
Bishop John Joseph (67), a Catholic human rights crusader, shot himself in the head to protest the country’s blasphemy law. His death triggered a 2 day riot when police clashed with mourners who carried his body to the Faisalabad cathedral for his funeral.
   (SFC, 5/9/98, p.A10)
-------------------------
12-5-1998
A day after India's first atomic test blasts in 24 years, neighboring Pakistan said it was ready to test a nuclear device itself.
   (AP, 5/12/99)
-------------------------
14-5-1998
Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden and the US all imposed penalties on India for its nuclear testing. Pakistan was pressured to refrain from testing its own nuclear weapons.
   (SFC, 5/15/98, p.A15)
-------------------------
23-5-1998
From India and Pakistan it was reported that temperatures had reached 120 degrees and claimed 34 lives. Most of the fatalities occurred in the southwestern Indian state of Maharashtra.
   (SFC, 5/23/98, p.A5)
-------------------------
28-5-1998
Pakistan matched India and exploded five of its own underground nuclear tests in the Chagai Hills. Pres. Clinton grimly denounced the tests and imposed penalties that could cause Pakistan billions. It was later reported that the number and size of the weapons were exaggerated.
   (SFC, 5/29/98, p.A1,13) (SFC, 9/16/98, p.A1)(AP, 5/28/99)
-------------------------
30-5-1998
Pakistan set off a nuclear bomb, the 6th test in 3 days.
   (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A15)
-------------------------
30-5-1998
An estimated 6.9 earthquake hit northern Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Shari Basurkh was hit hardest and some estimates put the death toll up to 3,000. The estimated deaths later reached 5,000.
   (SFEC, 5/31/98, p.A2)(SFC, 6/1/98, p.A1)(AP, 6/22/02)
-------------------------
7-6-1998
In Pakistan a bomb exploded on a passenger train in the southern Sindh province near Sukkur. 26 people were killed and 45 wounded. Pakistan later blamed the Indian Research and Analysis Wing (RAW). India denied involvement.
   (SFEC, 6/7/98, p.A18)(SFC, 6/8/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A1)
-------------------------
11-6-1998
Pakistan announced a moratorium on nuclear tests and offered to enter into bilateral talks with India.
   (WSJ, 6/12/98, p.A1)
-------------------------
12-6-1998
The G8 industrialized nations agreed to halt all loans to India and Pakistan except those for humanitarian purposes.
   (SFC, 6/13/98, p.A1)
-------------------------
23-6-1998
Pakistan and India agreed to negotiations in Sri Lanka. Their prime ministers would meet during a South Asian summit starting Jul 29.
   (SFC, 6/24/98, p.A12)
-------------------------
2-7-1998
In Shawan, Pakistan, Haji Mohammad Alam Channa, the world’s tallest man at 7 feet 7 and 1/4 inches, died at age 42 from kidney disease.
   (SFC, 7/4/98, p.C2)
-------------------------
3-7-1998
In Indian-held Kashmir Pakistani shelling forced over 2,000 villagers to flee and 7 people were reported killed in Dawar.
   (SFC, 7/4/98, p.A11)
-------------------------
4-7-1998
In Pakistan Zuhair Akram Nadeem, a former provincial and federal legislator, was shot a killed by 2 men on motorcycle.
   (SFEC, 7/5/98, p.A18)

-------------------------

15-7-1998
A letter, supposedly written by Jo Byong Ho, a North Korean official, was said to be addressed to Pakistani nuclear scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan. It said that the chief of the Pakistani Army, Gen. Jehangir Karamat, had been paid $3 million and asked that “agreed documents and components” be placed on a North Korean plane after delivering missile parts to Pakistan. The evidence suggested that Pakistan’s top military officials were involved in the secret sale of equipment to North Korea that enabled it to begin enriching uranium.
   (SFC, 7/8/11, p.A4)

-------------------------

21-7-1998
Pakistan announced austerity measures to cope with imposed sanctions.
   (WSJ, 7/22/98, p.A1)
-------------------------
31-7-1998
Talks between India and Pakistan broke down following border fighting in Kashmir that killed 50 people.
   (SFC, 8/1/98, p.A10)
-------------------------
7-8-1998
It was estimated that some 500 feudal-style families ruled Pakistan. In 1999 it was reported that 200 feudal families owned most of the land and industries.
   (WSJ, 8/7/98, p.A1)(SFEC, 10/31/99, p.A25)
-------------------------
7-8-1998
In Pakistan Sadik Howaida (34), later named as Mohammed Saddiq Odeh, was detained at the Karachi airport. He reportedly confessed to participating in the bombing in Nairobi. He said that he and 2 coconspirators had left Nairobi and planned to enter Afghanistan a few days before the bombing. He acknowledged that the team was recruited and financed by Osama bin Laden who was ensconced in a fortress-style hideout in Kandahar. Odeh later refused to admit responsibility to American officials.
   (SFEC, 8/16/98, p.A17)(SFC, 8/17/98, p.12,17)(SFC, 8/18/98, p.A6)
-------------------------
10-8-1998
Fighting in Kashmir resumed and 19 people were reported killed in battles between Indian security forces and Pakistan-backed separatist rebels.
   (WSJ, 8/11/98, p.A1)
-------------------------
12-8-1998
Benazir Bhutto was indicted on charges of illegally awarding a contract to a Dubai-based company for the import of gold and silver during her rule.
   (SFC, 8/13/98, p.C5)
-------------------------
27-8-1998
Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif announced the coming end of secular law and a new rule of Islamic law based on the Koran.
   (WSJ, 8/31/98, p.A18)
-------------------------
6-9-1998
In Peshawar an estimated 15,000 members of the Movement for the Enforcement of Islam in English marched against the American missile attack in Afghanistan. The US did not inform Pakistan of the strikes that crossed Pakistani air space.
   (SFC, 9/7/98, p.A10)(WSJ, 9/14/01, p.A5)
-------------------------
10-9-1998
In Pakistan a court sentenced a Muslim to death for blasphemy. Ghulam Akbar Kahn, a Shiite Muslim, took the name of Mohammed in vain during a May 1995 scuffle with a rival Sunni Muslim.
   (SFC, 9/11/98, p.D4)
-------------------------
19-9-1998
In Pakistani controlled Kashmir Indian artillery fire killed 9 people and wounded 11 others over the last 2 days.
   (SFEC, 9/20/98, p.A17)
-------------------------
23-9-1998
In Pakistan Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif said that he would sign the nuclear test ban treaty within the year. Sharif also met with Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee of India and agreed to resume talks on Kashmir.
   (SFC, 9/24/98, p.A12)(WSJ, 9/24/98, p.A1)
-------------------------
6-10-1998
In Karachi 6 people were killed in sectarian violence.
   (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A13)
-------------------------

7-10-1998
Gen’l. Jehangir Karamat resigned 2 days after advocating a direct political role for the military.
   (WSJ, 10/8/98, p.A13)
-------------------------
30-10-1998
Prime Minister Sharif dismissed the Sindh provincial government and imposed federal rule following a fallout between the Pakistan Muslim League and the Muttaheda Qami Movement over the recent killing of Hakim Said, a critic of the MQM and a leading physician.
   (SFC, 10/31/98, p.A14)
-------------------------
31-10-1998
The government planned to use direct rule in Karachi, where near daily violence this year has left 750 people dead.
   (SFEC, 11/1/98, p.A16)
-------------------------
2-11-1998
Mohammed Hashim Bakhtiari, the brother-in-law of former slain Afghan President Najibullah, was shot and killed in northwest Pakistan. Bakhtiari was returning to his home in a posh suburb of Peshawar when assailants opened fire with automatic rifles, police said. No one took responsibility for the killing.
   (SFC, 11/3/98, p.C12)(AP, 11/2/98)
-------------------------
6-11-1998
US President Clinton decided to lift most of the sanctions against India and Pakistan for their nuclear tests in May, as a reward for steps taken toward nuclear control agreements.
   (SFC, 11/7/98, p.A14)
-------------------------
10-11-1998
India and Pakistan negotiated disputes as 3 Indian soldiers were killed in border fire across the Kashmir cease-fire line.
   (SFC, 11/13/98, p.D6)
-------------------------
20-11-1998
Prime Minister Sharif ordered soldiers to quell violence in Karachi and suspended civil rights in Sindh province, which surrounds the city.
   (SFC, 11/21/98, p.A14)
-------------------------
5-12-1998
Pakistan's sinking credit rating and unsuccessful talks with U.S. officials in Washington caused a major setback to the stock market.
   (UPI, 12/6/98)
-------------------------
1998        
PM Bhutto appointed Gen. Pervez Musharraf as director-general of military operations.
   (SFC, 9/21/01, p.A20)
-------------------------
1998        
Osama bin laden founded al Qaeda in Peshawar, Pakistan.
   (Econ, 7/19/08, p.)
-------------------------
3-1-1999
In Pakistan a bomb intended for Prime Minister Sharif killed 3 civilians and a police official. The Muttahida Qami Movement (MQM) was suspected. The MQM represented Urdu-speaking people who immigrated from British India in 1947.
   (SFC, 1/4/99, p.A8)
-------------------------
4-1-1999
In Sha Jamal, Pakistan, in the eastern Punjab gunmen on motorcycle opened fire on Shiite Muslim worshipers and killed 16 people and wounded at least 25.
   (SFC, 1/4/99, p.A22)(SFC, 1/5/99, p.A8)
-------------------------
8-1-1999
In Pakistan it was reported that some 50,000 Pakistanis were being kept as slaves by powerful landlords in the Sindh province. Gov. Moinuddin Haider acknowledged the problem and promised to investigate.
   (SFC, 1/9/99, p.A14)
-------------------------


17-1-1999
In Pakistan Islamic laws were imposed in tribal areas of the northwest with punishments to include lashings, amputations of hands and feet, and executions.
   (SFC, 1/18/99, p.A14)
-------------------------

19-1-1999
Indian and Pakistani troops clashed in Kashmir and 4 Pakistani soldiers were killed.
   (WSJ, 1/20/99, p.A1)
-------------------------
20-2-1999
Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee of India rode to Pakistan by bus to meet with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for 2 days of talks.
   (SFEC, 2/21/99, p.A17)
-------------------------
21-2-1999
The leaders of India and Pakistan signed documents and a joint statement to reduce the risk of nuclear war and to resolve conflicts in Kashmir.
   (SFC, 2/22/99, p.A8)
-------------------------
1999        Feb,
The Pakistan Army began to re-occupy the posts it had abandoned on its side of the Line of Control in the Kargil region, but also sent forces to occupy some posts on the Indian side of the LOC. Pakistani army chief Gen. Musharaff sent troops there without informing PM Nawaz Sharif.
   (Econ, 6/19/10, p.46)
-------------------------
16-3-1999
The first passenger bus service between India and Pakistan was scheduled to begin.
   (SFEC, 3/14/99, p.A22)
-------------------------
6-4-1999
In Lahore Samia Imran was killed by a gunman accompanied by her mother under the practice of karo kari. Samia had sought divorce from an abusive husband and was perceived as causing dishonor to her family.
   (SFC, 1/11/00, p.A11)
-------------------------
13-4-1999
Pakistan test-fired a ballistic missile, the Ghauri II, at Dina. It was reported to have a range of 1200 miles.
   (SFC, 4/14/99, p.A14)
-------------------------
14-4-1999
Pakistan tested a Shaheen I missile with a range of 450 miles.
   (SFC, 4/15/99, p.C16)
-------------------------
15-4-1999
In Pakistan a court convicted Benazir Bhutto in absentia of corruption and sentenced her to 5 years in prison.
   (SFC, 4/16/99, p.A18)
-------------------------
16-5-1999
In Pakistan a gasoline truck overturned and exploded while people attempted to salvage leaking fuel in Adda Rodu Sultan. Some 65 people were killed and at least 75 injured.
   (SFC, 5/17/99, p.A12)
-------------------------
20-5-1999
In Pakistan a cyclone struck the Arabian Sea coast and left an estimated 700 people missing, many of whom were presumed dead. Residents said that as many as 3,500 people were missing. 200 bodies were recovered after 2 days.
   (SFC, 5/21/99, p.A13)(SFC, 5/22/99, p.A16)
-------------------------
25-5-1999
India launched air strikes in the disputed mountains of the Kargil and Drass regions of Kashmir against suspected Pakistani infiltrators. Gen Musharraf was later identified as the architect of Pakistan’s (July) Kargil campaign.
   (SFC, 5/26/99, p.C2)(SFC, 5/27/99, p.A13)(SSFC, 1/6/02, p.A14)
-------------------------
27-5-1999
India lost 2 fighter jets, a MiG-21 and a MiG-27, to Pakistani fire on the Pakistani side of Kashmir. Pakistan promised to return one dead pilot and to hold the other as hostage.
   (SFC, 5/28/99, p.A12)
-------------------------
28-5-1999
In the Kashmir border conflict Muslim guerrillas shot down an Indian helicopter and 4 Indian soldiers were killed. Pakistan offered to hold peace talks with India.
   (SFC, 5/29/99, p.A10)(SFC, 5/31/99, p.A10)
-------------------------
30-5-1999
In Kashmir Indian fighter jets pounded militants in the Kargil sector for the 5th day.
   (SFC, 5/31/99, p.A10)
-------------------------
31-5-1999
India agreed to hold talks with Pakistan over Kashmir, but there was no let up in the Indian offensive against guerrillas.
   (SFC, 6/1/99, p.A8)
-------------------------
1999        May,
Najam Sethi, editor of the Friday Times weekly, was arrested. He was barred a month later from leaving Pakistan to accept a human rights award from Amnesty Int'l.
   (SFC, 6/24/99, p.A12)
-------------------------
1-6-1999
Pakistani authorities said 10 school children were killed by an Indian artillery shell that his a school near the Line of Control dividing India and Pakistan in Kashmir. India claimed to have killed 470 Muslim fighters and Pakistani soldiers. In Kargil Pakistani forces shelled for the 26th consecutive day.
   (SFC, 6/2/99, p.C2)
-------------------------
2-6-1999
In Kashmir Islamic guerrillas rejected India's offer of safe passage out of the battle zone.
   (SFC, 6/3/99, p.C4)
-------------------------
3-6-1999
Pakistan freed Indian fighter pilot, Flight Lt. Nachiketa, as a good will gesture.
   (SFC, 6/4/99, p.D2)
-------------------------
5-6-1999
India rejected proposed talks with Pakistan for Jun 7 as inconvenient. Indian Gen'l. Chopra estimated 200 intruders had been killed and said 54 Indian soldiers were killed.
   (SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A22)
-------------------------
6-6-1999
India resumed air strikes in Kashmir as troops pushed back guerrillas occupying disputed territory.
   (SFC, 6/7/99, p.A11)
-------------------------
8-6-1999
India and Pakistan agreed to hold talks on Kashmir Jun 11, while India continued airstrikes and a ground offensive.
   (WSJ, 6/8/99, p.A1)
-------------------------
9-6-1999
The Pakistan army handed over to India the bodies of 6 severely mutilated Indian soldiers.
   (SFEC, 6/20/99, p.C4)
-------------------------
12-6-1999
India and Pakistan met for talks on Kashmir with little success as each blamed the other for the insurgency.
   (SFEC, 6/13/99, p.A13)
-------------------------
13-6-1999
Pakistan accused India of using chemical weapons in its Kashmir offensive, as India claimed to have captured a key mountain peak.
   (WSJ, 6/14/99, p.A1)

-------------------------
16-6-1999
Pakistan admitted deep involvement on the Kashmir border war with India.
   (SFC, 6/17/99, p.C3)
-------------------------
21-6-1999
Indian soldiers cleared Islamic guerrillas from a 2nd Kashmir mountain outpost, Point 5203, and killed at least 10 guerrillas.
   (SFC, 6/22/99, p.A12)
-------------------------
26-6-1999
Pakistan gave tacit admission that its fighters were involved in the Kashmir region against Indian forces. India claimed to have lost 5 men and that 4 infiltrators were killed. Islamabad claimed that an offensive was repulsed and that 12 Indian soldiers were killed.
   (SFEC, 6/27/99, p.A23)

-------------------------
29-6-1999
In Kashmir Indian fighters raided 13 guerrilla positions at Point 4700 and at least 40 people were killed, 25 of them Indians.
   (SFC, 6/30/99, p.A9)
-------------------------
2-7-1999
The Pakistani army reported that 58 Kashmiri civilians had been killed and 158 wounded over the last 2 month by Indian shelling.
   (SFC, 7/3/99, p.A9)
-------------------------
4-7-1999
Pakistani PM Nawaz Sharif met with Pres. Clinton and announced that it would abandon its seized positions in Kashmir. Meanwhile India claimed a victory at Tiger Hill. In 2002 it was revealed that Clinton confronted Sharif with intelligence reports that the Pakistani military was preparing missiles with nuclear warheads.
   (SFC, 7/5/99, p.A8)(SFC, 5/15/02, p.A11)
-------------------------


6-7-1999
In Kashmir fighting continued despite a US-Pakistan pact to push for peace. India reported 55 mercenaries killed along with 9 Indian soldiers.
   (SFC, 7/7/99, p.A10)
-------------------------
10-7-1999
In India the prime minister said most of the Pakistani soldiers had been cleared out of the Indian side of Kashmir.
   (SFEC, 7/11/99, p.A26)
-------------------------
11-7-1999
In India and Pakistan top commanders agreed to the withdrawal of Islamic militants from Kashmir along with a complete cease fire.
   (SFC, 7/12/99, p.A1)
-------------------------
27-7-1999
A bomb in Pakistan-ruled Kashmir killed 7 people and injured 40 when it exploded on a bus in the Kotli district.
   (WSJ, 7/28/99, p.A1)
-------------------------
4-8-1999
In Kashmir 4 days of fighting left at least 50 people dead including 32 militants and 7 Indian soldiers.
   (SFC, 8/6/99, p.A16)
-------------------------


10-8-1999
An Indian jet shot down a Pakistani naval reconnaissance plane over the disputed Sir Creek area. All 16 people in the plane were killed.
   (www.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9908/10/india.pak.plane.01/index.html)
-------------------------


14-8-1999
Separatist rebels in India killed at least 7 people in Kashmir and Assam attacks on Pakistan Independence Day.
   (WSJ, 8/16/99, p.A1)
-------------------------
17-8-1999
Pakistan said 6 soldiers and 2 civilians were killed in shelling by India.
   (WSJ, 8/18/99, p.A1)
-------------------------
21-8-1999
It was reported that many serfs in the Sindh province of Pakistan, estimated at 50,000, were setting themselves free and demanding better lives. Most of the laborers were minority Hindus.
   (SFC, 8/21/99, p.A13)
-------------------------
1-9-1999
In Kashmir Pakistani soldiers attacked Indian posts over the last 2 days and left 22 soldiers dead.
   (SFC, 9/2/99, p.A16)
-------------------------
9-9-1999
In Peshawar over 5,000 Islamic students marched for Osama bin Laden and chanted "Death to America." They suspected that Washington was preparing an attack on Afghanistan.
   (SFC, 9/10/99, p.D4)
-------------------------

17-9-1999
Opposition politicians and the Christian community accused the government of colluding with Maulana Ajmal Qadri, leader of the Jamiat-Ulema-e-Islam, who had called for the killing of legislators who oppose Islamic law in Pakistan.
   (SFC, 9/17/99, p.D6)
-------------------------
20-9-1999
Asif Ali Zardari, the jailed husband of former prime minister Benazir Bhutto, was indicted with 8 other people on charges of drug trafficking.
   (SFC, 9/21/99, p.A12)
-------------------------

1-10-1999
In Pakistan gunmen attacked Shiites in Karachi and killed 9 people in a mosque. A retaliatory attack on a Sunni Muslim school left 4 dead. Another 5 people were killed in eastern Punjab.
   (SFC, 10/2/99, p.A13)
-------------------------
12-10-1999
In Pakistan Gen'l. Pervez Musharraf led a military coup after PM Shariff tried to fire him and replace him with Gen'l. Zia Uddin. Musharraf avoided martial law and left the parliament intact. Sharif refused to let a passenger plane land in Karachi with 198 people aboard that included Gen. Musharraf. The coup cut short a Pakistani commando operation set up by the CIA to get Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. In 2009 the Pakistani Supreme Court acquitted Sharif of hijacking charges.
   (SFC, 10/13/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/14/99, p.A21)(SFC, 4/6/00, p.A12)(SFC, 10/3/01, p.A10)(SFC, 7/18/09, p.A2)

-------------------------

15-10-1999
In Pakistan Gen'l. Pervez Musharraf declared a state of emergency and suspended the constitution.
   (SFC, 10/15/99, p.A1)
-------------------------
17-10-1999
In Pakistan Gen'l. Musharraf announced a unilateral reduction of troops on the India border, the establishment of a military-technocrat ruling council, and an eventual return to civilian rule. He unveiled a 7-point agenda to save the nation.
   (SFC, 10/18/99, p.A10)(http://tinyurl.com/ruuth)
-------------------------
25-10-1999
In Pakistan Gen. Musharraf announced that he would head the formation of a 7-person National Security Council to run the country until elections.
   (SFC, 10/26/99, p.A12)
-------------------------
25-10-1999
In Kashmir Indian troops killed 4 Pakistani soldiers with artillery and small arms in the mountainous Uri sector.
   (SFC, 10/27/99, p.C2)
-------------------------
6-11-1999
In Pakistan a 10-member civilian cabinet, named by Gen. Musharraf, formally took office.
   (SFEC, 11/7/99, p.A24)

-------------------------

11-11-1999
Javed Iqbal (40) killed his 87th victim, Mohammad Imran (15). Iqbal dissolved the bodies in vats of chemicals and left photos and notes that described his victims. The story became public in Dec. when his killings reached 100 and he made his story public. Iqbal surrendered in Lahore, Pakistan, on Dec 30. He was found strangled with bed sheets in his cell on Oct 7, 2001.
   (SFC, 12/7/99, p.B2)(WSJ, 12/31/99, p.A1)(WSJ, 10/10/01, p.A1)
-------------------------
12-11-1999
In Pakistan several explosions near American structures struck in downtown Islamabad and injured 6 people. It was speculated that Taliban supporters were linked to the blasts.
   (SFC, 11/12/99, p.D2)(SFC, 11/13/99, p.A10)
-------------------------
17-11-1999
In Pakistan over 20 of the country's wealthiest and most powerful people were arrested for corruption. A law was drawn up at 2 a.m. to give the government the right to prosecute any former official for suspected corruption back to 1985.
   (SFC, 11/18/99, p.A20)
-------------------------
27-12-1999
In northeast Pakistan Salamat Shah, a Shiite Muslim, opened fire and killed 12 members of a rival Sunni Muslim group, Sipa-e-Sahaba, during a funeral procession in Sikunder Pur.
   (SFC, 12/28/99, p.A10)
-------------------------
1999      
Abdul Qadeer Khan, a Pakistani scientist, visited North Korea and was shown 3 nuclear devices according to a report he made public in 2004.
   (SFC, 4/13/04, p.A1)


Source:
timelines.ws.
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History of Pakistan
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