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 History of Peru (36Mil BC -2000

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History of Peru
 
 

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36Mil BC
  In 2005 scientists in Peru reported the discovery of a giant penguin that lived about this time on the Peruvian coastline. The bird was named Icadyptes salasi. It stood over 5-feet and lived during one of the warmest periods of the worldu0092s history
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12Mil BC  
A raptorial sperm whale living about this time grew up to 60 feet with some teeth 14 inches long. Fossils were discovered in a Peruvian desert and in 2010 scientists named it Leviathan melvillei
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10Mil BC  
 In 2009 researchers in Peru said an unusually intact fossilized skull of a pelagornithid, a giant, bony-toothed seabird that lived up to 10 million years ago, had been found in the in the Pisco Formation, a coastal rock bed south of the capital, Lima, known for yielding fossils of whales, dolphins, turtles and other marine life dating as far back as 14 million years
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9600BC  
 A site of human habitation in Peru was dated to about this time. Later excavations indicated complex stone tools that appeared to date back to at least 28,000 BCE
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8000BC
  The potato was first cultivated some 10,000 years ago by South American Indians. In the 16th century Spanish explorers brought potatoes back to Europe, where it was first used primarily as livestock feed. The potato was introduced to North America in the 17th century. In the 18th century, the poor of Europe began to use potatoes as a replacement for cereals in their diets. The failure of the potato crop in Ireland in 1845-46 led to great famine and pushed tens of thousands of Irish to emigrate to the United States. In 2008 it was reported that genetic studies by potato experts indicated that all potatoes originated over 10,000 years ago from a single ancestor, Solanum brevicaule, found on the Peruvian side of Lake Titicaca
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3800BC  
 The Supe people, a maritime farming community, was established about this time along the coast of Peru
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3600BC
  The Supe people, a maritime farming community along the coast of Peru, disappeared about this time. In 2009 researchers found their disappearance coincided with earthquakes and landslides followed by massive flooding.
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3500BC-3000BC  
 In 2008 a team of German and Peruvian archaeologists reported the discovery of a ceremonial plaza near Peru's north-central coast dating to this period
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3022BC  
In Peru the pyramids of Aspero on the Pacific coast dated to about this time.
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3000BC  
 Scientists say that the weather changed about this time and that the first El Nino Pacific Ocean temperature flip occurred. Analysis of Peruvian coastal middens of this period indicated a diet change from tropical mollusks to cold water mollusks. The idea was first proposed in 1983 and evidence was added from Japan and Greenland. Skeptics claim that the change was due to mollusks harvested from now vanished warm water lagoons
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2627BC  
 Parts of Caral, a city in the Supe Valley of Peru, was built about this time. The 170-acre site, 14 miles from the coast, was discovered in 1905 but not dated till 2001. The city had pyramids up to 70 feet tall and its population was believed to have reached about 3,000
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2200BC  
 In the Peruvian Andes a native culture built a 33-foot pyramid about this time with an observatory marking the summer and winter solstices. In 2006 archeologists working at the Buena Vista site believed that fisherman from the coast had moved to the site to grow cotton for making fishing nets
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2000BC  
 In 2007 a temple dating to about this time was unearthed on the northern coast of Peru, making it one of the oldest finds in the Americas. The mural filled temple, called Ventarron, sits in the Lambayeque valley, near the ancient Sipan complex unearthed in the 1980s
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2000BC
  In Peru the pyramid at El Paraiso was built about this time. In 2013 two real estate development companies destroyed the 20-foot tall pyramid, a few miles north of Lima
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2000BC  
 In 2008 researchers reported that the earliest known gold jewelry made in the Americas had been discovered in southern Peru. The gold necklace, made nearly 4,000 years ago, was found in a burial site near Lake Titicaca
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c1300BC  
 The Paracas culture originated about this time along the southern coast of Peru. They mummified their dead and created fine textiles
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c1200-300BC
  A pre-Columbian culture flourished over this time in the Andes site of Chavin de Huantar
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c1000BC
  In 1999 the tomb of a Huayakuntur Indian of this time was found in Ayabaca province
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950BC  
    Peanuts have been traced back to this time in Brazil and Peru
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c700BC-900AD  
Natives of the Nasca culture drew lines and geometrical figures into the coastal desert during this period that were over a mile long
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c500BC
  Monumental ceremonial centers on the Peruvian coast were abandoned about this time. The period was later found to correspond with an increase in el Nino frequency
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400BC-540CE  
    The Inca Early Intermediate Period
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350BC    
   The Chavin civilization had a settlement at this time on the north-western coast of Peru. The elite of this civilization tracked the movement of the sun throughout the year
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c100-700  
 A group of agricultural Indians (today called the Moche) inhabit the desert margin between the Andes and the Pacific in what is today called Peru. They raised huge monuments of sun baked mud where they laid their dead with fine gold and pottery. They irrigated crops such as corn, beans, squash, and peanuts. The ate llamas and guinea pigs and caught fish in the Pacific. [2nd source dated the Moche from 0-800] The Nasca [Nazca] Indians also inhabited this area about this time
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c100-700  
 The Nazca Lines are a complex series of huge birds, animals and other figures etched over a 35-mile stretch of high desert by the Nazca culture some 225 miles southeast of Lima
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c100-700    
Moche people built elaborate settlements along 300 miles of Peruu0092s coast that included Huaco Cao Viejo
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450      
In Peru a tattooed Moche woman was entombed about this time, at a site later called El Brujo, with a sacrificed teenage slave and a collection of weapons and jewelry. In 2006 her mummy was discovered in a pyramid called Huaca Cao Viejo
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c500    
  A Moche pyramid from this time at Dos Cabezas contained tombs that archeologists found in 1997. The tombs revealed people of unusual height along with miniatures of the deceased and the tombu0092s contents
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563-594  
 In northern Peru a 30-year mega el Niño weather period began that caused major flooding in areas populated by the Moche people
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594    
 In Peru a 30-year drought began about this time that followed years of flooding in areas populated by the Moche people
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600-1100  
The Wari ruled during this period and were the first people to unite diverse tribes into a sophisticated network across most of the Peruvian Andes. A Wari tomb was discovered in 2013
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650-700  
 In northern Peru archeological evidence later indicated that civil strife during this period, which followed some 30 years of drought, led to the demise of the Moche civilization
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750-1375  
 The Sican culture flourished on Peru's northern desert coast. In 2006 archaeologists unearthed 22 graves containing a trove of Sican artifacts, including the first "tumi" ceremonial knives ever discovered by archaeologists rather than looted by thieves
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c900    
  In Peru the Lambayeque people established themselves over areas previously developed by the Moche
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900-1200  
 The Killke people occupied the region around Cuzco, Peru, from 900 to 1200 A.D., prior to the arrival of the Incas. In 2008 Archaeologists discovered the ruins of an ancient temple, roadway and irrigation systems at Sacsayhuaman, a famed fortress overlooking Cuzco, that shed light on the pre-Inca cultures of Peru
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c1000    
  An early Andean culture known as the Huari cultivated crops with complex irrigation systems back to this time
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1438    
  The Incas established an imperial state in the Andes (Peru) and Cusco was rebuilt. They went on to build over 25,000 miles of roads
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1450-1532  
 The period of the Inca Empire. Inca mummies were later found on Mt. Ampato in 1995 and 1997. In 1998 archeologist found 6 frozen mummies sacrificed to Inca gods near the crater of the 19,100 foot El Misti volcano, 465 miles southeast of Lima, Peru
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1460-1470  
  Machu Pichu was built under the Inca King Pachacuti in the Peruvian Andes. It was occupied for about 50 years before 180 Spanish conquistadors wiped out a 40,000-man Inca army. In 2003 a nearby complex of structures called Llactapata (high city) was discovered
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1480-1533  
 A huge Inca cemetery was active in Lima at this time. It was uncovered in 2002 with some 2,200 mummies
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1502-1533  
 Atahualpa, emperor of the Incas. He had a fortune in gold and silver and tried to purchase his freedom from Pizarro for a chamber filled with gold. Pizarro took 124 tons of gold in ransom and then re-arrested Atahualpa for treason to the Spanish crown and had him decapitated
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1522
Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru
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1525
The Spanish made initial contact with the Incas
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c1525
First found in Peru by invading Spaniards, the tomato was also known as a "love apple" or "wolf peach" and regarded with suspicion and shunned as food. It was believed to be unhealthy or downright poisonous and given the Latin name Lycopersicon, or "wolf peach." In Europe it was thought to be a potent-and thus forbidden-aphrodisiac, hence the name "love apple." Thomas Jefferson grew tomatoes in the late 1700s, but they weren't widely consumed in Europe and America until the early 1800s.
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26-7-1529
Francisco Pizarro was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru
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1530`s
The Spanish invasion forced the Incas to retreat
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16-11-1532
Pizarro first encountered Incan emperor Atahualpa at Cajamarca, who declined conversion to Christianity. Pizzaro and 167 fellow Spaniards, armored and on horseback, killed or wounded some 6,000 to 7,000 natives and captured emperor Atahualpa. In 2007 Kim MacQuarrie authored "The Last Days of the Incas"
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1532
Spanish conquistadores reached the high valley of the Andes. Pizzaro entered Cuzco, Inca capital of Peru
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1532
Francisco Pizzaro (54) with 183 soldiers entered the lowlands of northern Peru near Cajamarca, the capital of the Incan empire
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28-8-1533
Atahualpa, last of the Inca rulers was strangled at the orders of Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro. The Inca empire died with him
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29-8-1533
Francisco Pizarro captured Cuzco and completed his conquest of Peru. He ordered the imprisonment and murder of Atahualpa, the last ruler of the Incan Empire. Atahualpa was executed by orders of Francisco Pizarro, although the chief had already paid his ransom. Ruminahui (Rumanahui), a general of Atahualpa, led 15,000 soldiers into the mountains north of Quito, after Pizarro killed the Inca emperor Atahualpa. His forces carried an estimated 70,000 man-loads of gold.
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15-11-1533
Francisco Pizarro entered Cuzco, Peru. [see Aug 29]
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1535
In 6-1-1535 or in 18-1-1535 : The city of ( Lima )in Peru, was founded by Francisco Pizarro.
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1535
Francisco de Orellana accompanied Francisco Pizarro on the latter's conquest of Peru
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1536
Spanish soldiers crushed an Indian revolt and Incas fled to Peru`s Vilcabamba region. In 2002 archeologists uncovered a settlement on Cerro Victorio
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1540
Arequipa was founded by Spanish conquerors.
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26-6-1541
Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers in Lima
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12-5-1551
San Marcos University opened in Lima, Peru. The Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos was founded under Spanish royal charter
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1553
Pedro Cieza de Leon wrote the first European description of the potato in his (Chronicles of Peru)
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9-12-1569
Martinus de Porres, saint (patron of social justice), was born in Peru
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5-12-1578
Sir Francis Drake sailed into the port of Valparaiso. He had renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind, and ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world
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c1580
Tupac Amuru, an Inca leader, held out against the Spanish conquest after most of the empire had been subdued.
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18-2-1600
Arequipa, Peru, was destroyed by an earthquake. Huaynaputina was the site of a monogenetic silicic eruption that ranks greater than 1883 Krakatau and 1991 Mt. Pinatubo in magnitude. A 26 hour-long plinian eruption devastated the socioeconomic fabric of southern Peru and neighboring Chile and Bolivia
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1604
Agustino Salumbrino, a Jesuit monk, left Rome for Peru, where he studied native plants for their healing powers, especially the bark of the cinchona tree used by the Incas to treat shivering. By 1630 quinine entered the literature as a treatment. In 2003 Fiammetta Rocco authored "The Miraculous Fever Tree: Malaria and the Quest for a Cure That Changed the World."
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30-8-1617
Rosa de Lima of Peru became the first American saint to be canonized
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29-4-1623
11 Dutch ships departed for the conquest of Peru
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23-1-1639
Francisco Maldonado da Silva Solis, Peruvian poet, was burned at stake.
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3-11-1639
Martinus de Porres (69), Peru saint (patron of social justice), died
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1667
Arequipa was hit by an earthquake
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1668
Arequipa was hit by another earthquake
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20-10-1687
In Peru a massive earthquake leveled most of Lima. It triggered a tsunami and overall about 5,000 people died
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1700s
In 1927 Thornton Wilder wrote "The Bridge of San Luis Rey"
It was set in Peru in the early 1700s when a rope bridge broke that sent 5 people to their death.
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28-10-1746
The Peruvian cities of Lima and Callao were demolished by an earthquake. 18,000 died
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1749 Mar
Jean Godin, French geographer, left Quito, part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (later Ecuador), in an attempt to reach France to settle his family estate. He traveled by an eastern route across South America and became stranded in French Guiana for over 20 years. In 2004 Robert Whitaker authored "The Mapmaker`s Wife: A True Tale of Love, Murder, and Survival in the Amazon"
It was an account of Jean Godin (d.1792), French mapmaker, and his wife, Isabel Godin. They managed to reunite in 1770
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25-2-1778
Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) was born in Argentina. He liberated Argentina, Chile and Peru. Protector of Peru (1821-1822)
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1780
Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui led a failed Indian revolt against the Spanish. He appropriated the name of an earlier Inca leader and became Tupac Amuru II
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1781
Tupac Amuru II was executed
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1800-1900
The 19th century Andean explorer, Antonuio Raimondi, had drawn a map with the words Machu Picchu in the correct location
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c1800-1900
A native named Fitzcarraldo attempted to build a Peruvian rain forest opera house to attract the singer Caruso. The 1982 film "Fitzcarraldo" by Werner Herzog was Herzog's version of the story
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5-10-1804
The Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes, a Spanish galleon, was sunk by the British navy southwest of Portugal with more than 200 people on board. In May 2007, Odyssey Marine Exploration announced that it had discovered a wreck in the Atlantic and its cargo of 500,000 silver coins and other artifacts worth an estimated $500 million. Spain claimed this was the Nuestra Senora de las Mercedes. In 2009 Peru pushed claims to the silver coins arguing that they were minted in Lima. In 2012 a US judge ordered that the treasure be returned to Spain
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1814
Jose Francisco de San Martin (1778-1850) became general in chief of Argentina`s Army of the North. His primary mission was to protect Argentina against Spanish royalists in Peru
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1820 Oct
Argentina`s Jose de San Martin blockaded Lima, Peru, and urged the people of Peru to join in the uprising against Spain
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7-12-1820
Peru`s army, after sweeping out the Spanish, swore in the first mayor of the Peruvian Republic, in Chaupimarca plaza, the central district of Cerro de Pasco. By 2010 the town faced destruction due to industrial mining
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28-7-1821
Peru declared its independence from Spain. Lima had been the seat of the Spanish viceroys until this time. Jose Francisco de San Martin of Argentina had blockaded Lima and forced the Spanish viceroy to abandon the city. Martin returned to Argentina in 1822
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1821-1822
Jose Francisco de San Martin (d.1850) served as Protector of Peru.

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10-9-1823
Simon Bolivar was named president of Peru and assumed the presidency with dictatorial powers. He had led the wars for independence from Spain in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru and Bolivia.
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10-2-1824
Simon Bolivar was named President by the Congress of Peru
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24-8-1824
Simon Bolivar's army beat the Spanish in Peru in the Battle at Junin
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1824 Dec 9
In the Battle of Ayacucho (Candorcangui) Peru defeated Spain
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6-8-1825
Simon Bolivar drew up a constitution for Bolivia in which a life president appointed his successor. Sucre served as the sole capital until losing a brief civil war to La Paz in 1899. Upper Peru became the autonomous republic of Bolivia
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25-9-1829
There was a failed assassination attempt on Simon Bolivar
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1830
The government of Peru exempted guano from taxes. The commercial mining and export of the rich fertilizer soon followed
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20-1-1839
Chile defeated a confederation of Peru and Bolivia in the Battle of Yungay
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1849-1875
Some 100,000 Chinese coolies arrived as laborers in Peru during this period.
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1862
Peruvian slavers arrived on Easter Island. Slaves that eventually returned brought smallpox
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1867
Harry Meiggs departed Chile, where he had built a railroad between Santiago and Valparaiso and moved to Peru, where he was awarded a contract to build the Arequipa Railway. The over hyped railroads he built helped drive the country into financial ruin
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1867
German businessman named Augusto R. Berns purchased land across from Machu Picchu, Peru, and an 1887 document showed he set up a company to plunder the site.
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13-8-1868
A magnitude 9.0 quake in Arica, Peru (later Chile), generated catastrophic tsunamis; more than 25,000 people were killed in South America.
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30-9-1877
Harry Meiggs (b.1811), American businessman and railroad magnate in Chile and Peru, died virtually penniless in Peru. Before his death Meiggs made restitution to his creditors in San Francisco. In 1874 the California legislature passed Senate Bill 183 dismissing any previous indictment against him
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1879-1883
In the War of the Pacific, Chile`s army won the nitrate-rich desert lands from Peru and Bolivia. The war was fought over the treatment of Chilean investors in the desert territories. The area remained in contention until a 1929 agreement proposed by Pres. Herbert Hoover
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1881
Chilean soldiers pillaged Peru`s national library during the War of the Pacific. In 2007 Chile returned 3,778 books taken by its soldiers
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1901-1966
Rafael Larco Hoyle, founder of the Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera in Lima
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1902
In Peru US-owned Cerro de Pasco Corp. started to buy up mines in Cerro de Pasco and brought industrial mining, creating a boomtown. A half century later in 1956, the company turned to strip mining and started gouging the pit, which has since swallowed more than half the original urban center. State-run Centromin continued the pit expansion after a 1973 expropriation of the US company; Volcan since 1999
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1906
David Casement, a British consul, was sent to Brazil, first as consul in Pará, then transferred to Santos, and lastly promoted to consul-general in Rio de Janeiro. When he was attached as a consular representative to a commission investigating murderous rubber slavery by the British-registered Peruvian Amazon Company, effectively controlled by the archetypal rubber baron Julio Cesar Arana and his brother, Casement had the occasion to do work among the Putumayo Indians of Peru similar to that which he had done in the Congo
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24-7-1911
Hiram Bingham, American explorer, was led by local guides to a Lost City of the Incas. He explored several Inca ruins and the mountaintop citadel of Machu Pichu. He was in search of the lost city of Vilcabamba, the Inca`s legendary last refuge from the invading Spaniards. Bingham was an archeologist from Yale and later served as a Connecticut governor and US senator. In 1948 Bingham authored "Lost City of the Incas"
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28-11-1916
Hiram Bingham, American explorer, wrote a letter to Gilbert H. Graham, the president of National Geographic, in which he stated that artifacts from his 3rd expedition to Peru belonged to the Peruvian government, which expected their return in 18 months. A dispute over the return of artifacts from Yale back to Peru continued in 2006. In 2010 Yale made arrangements to return the collection in stages over the next 2 years
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25-11-1918
Chile and Peru severed relations
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10-9-1927
Yma Sumac, [Chavarri], 5 octave soprano (Omar Khayyam), was born in Ichocan, Peru.
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1926
The Museo Arqueologico Rafael Larco Herrera was founded in Lima by archeologist Rafael Larco Hoyle and named after his father
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3-6-1929
Chile, Peru & Bolivia signed an accord about the Tacna-Arica area. Chile and Peru accepted a proposal by Pres. Herbert Hoover over the outcome of the 1879-1893 War of the Pacific. Chile would retain Arica and return Tacna to Peru and grant access to the Arica port as a compromise. The accord was not implemented until 1999
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1932 Chile and Peru signed an extradition treaty
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28-3-1936
Mario Vargas Llosa, Peruvian novelist (Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, Death in the Andes), was born
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1938
Cesar Vallejo (b.1892), Peruvian poet, died. His 1918 book "The Black Heralds" was translated into English in 2003 by Rebecca Seiferle
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1941
Peru and Ecuador went to war over a border conflict.
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20-11-1942
Meredith Monk, choreographer, composer and performing artist, was born in Lima, Peru.
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1942
A treaty set the 1,050-mile border between Peru and Ecuador, but a 49-mile stretch in the Cordillera del Condor region was not demarcated
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14-2-1945
Peru, Paraguay, Chile and Ecuador joined the United Nations
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13-3-1945
Peru declared war on Germany.
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1948
Peruvian politician Victor Raul de la Torre, following the rise of a dictator, found refuge in a Colombian embassy in Lima for 6 years as army tanks surrounded the building.
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22-2-1952
The U.S. signed a military aid pact with Peru
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18-8-1952
Chile, Ecuador and Peru signed the Declaration on the Maritime Zone. On Jan 27 the Int`l. Court of Justice ruled on the sea border between Chile and Peru. It confirmed Chile`s hold over inshore waters rich in fish
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1958 May 8
Vice President Nixon was shoved, stoned, booed and spat upon by anti-American protesters in Lima, Peru. Vice President Richard Nixon`s eight-nation South America goodwill tour in May 1958 encountered violent demonstrations, particularly in Peru and Venezuela, spurring President Dwight Eisenhower to order the movement of U.S. forces into Caribbean bases.
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1958
Arequipa was hit by an earthquake
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1959
Pres. Manuel Prado confined Fernando Belaunde (d.2002) to an island prison
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1960
Arequipa, Peru, was hit by another earthquake
[see Chile, May 22, 1960]
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10-1-1962
Eruptions on Mount Huascaran in Peru destroyed 7 villages and killed 3,500
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1963
Fernando Belaunde (d.2002) was elected president
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1965
Peru cut a trail through the jungle to Inapari, its border town across from Assis, Brazil.
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25-5-1966
Peru and Argentina soccer fans fought in Lima and 248 died.
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1967
Peru and 3 other countries in South America banned trade in vicuna, a relative of the llama, after numbers had severely dwindled. A CITES ban followed in 1975
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3-10-1968
In Peru the military seized power in a coup. Pres. Belaunde was overthrown by Gen. Juan Velasco
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1968 Oct 9
The new military government of Peru seized the country's oil fields
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1968-1975
The pro-Soviet Velasco Alvarado regime ruled Peru. The military government expropriated the sugar estates on the country`s north coast turning them into government-owned cooperatives
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17-2-1969
Russia and Peru signed their first trade accord
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24-7-1969
Petroleos del Peru (PETROPERU S.A.) was created (law No.17753) as a state-owned entity
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1969
Peru`s government banned the trade of vicuna fleece as hunters drove the animals close to extinction.
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31-5-1970
A 7.7 slab earthquake and debris flow in Peru killed 67,000, injured 50,000 and destroyed 186,000 buildings.
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1970s
Vladimiro Montesinos, an army captain, was arrested and convicted of selling Peruvian military secrets to the US. He served a year in prison and then became a drug lawyer
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24-12-1971
LANSA Flight 508, a LANSA Lockheed Electra OB-R-941 commercial airliner, crashed in the Peruvian rainforest. Juliane Diller Kopcke (17) of Lima, Peru, was the sole survivor of 92 passengers. She and her mother, famed ornithologist Maria Kopcke, were traveling to meet with her father, biologist Hans-Wilhelm Kopcke. Juliane traveled for 9 days in the jungle before she found help. Her experience became the subject of two films: the 1974 Giuseppe Maria Scotese film Miracoli accadono ancora, I (Miracles Still Happen), and the 2000 film "Wings of Hopeu" by Werner Herzog film
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1972-1981
Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru served as the Secretary-General of the UN
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1972-1973
El Nino currents led to the collapse of the Peruvian anchovy industry. The annual catch had peaked at 12 million tons
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1973
Peru outlawed the export of rain forest birds
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1974
Pres. Juan Velasco Alvarado took over the Peruvian press
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29-8-1975
In Peru Gen. Francisco Belaunde (b.1921) began serving as president. He continued to July 28, 1980
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1975
Peru`s sugar output peaked at 1 million tons
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1977
Eva Ayllon made her recording debut with the Creole group Trio Los Kipus: Los Kipus y Eva.'
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1977
The Manu National Park, 4.6 million acres between Cuzco and Madre de Dios provinces, was declared a biosphere reserve by UNESCO
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مُساهمةموضوع: =   History of Peru      (36Mil BC -2000 Icon_minitimeالأحد مارس 16, 2014 9:45 pm

1978
Jul 3, The Amazon Pact was established. Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela signed the Amazon Pact, a Brazilian initiative designed to coordinate the joint development of the Amazon Basin
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1978
Dec, Nestor Cerpa, union leader, led 50 workers in the occupation of the Cromotex textile factory in Lima over low wages and layoffs. They held the plant for more than 6 weeks before the police stormed it. Six workers and a police officer were killed
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1979
Feb 4, Police stormed the union held Cromotex factory in Lima. Nestor Cerpa was jailed for a year
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1980
May 18, Former president Fernando Belaunde Terry was elected president of Peru. Democracy was restored and the media was free again
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1980
Jul 28, Fernando Belaunde Terry (1912-2002) became president of Peru for a 2nd term and held office to 1985. His first term ran from 1963-1968
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1980
The Shining Path rebellion began at a university in a provincial capital

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1980
-1990s In 2003 Peruvian investigators dramatically increased their estimate of the death toll from a two-decade fight against Shining Path rebels, saying they now believe between 40,000 and 60,000 people perished or disappeared

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1980-1993
The Peru war unleashed by Sendero, a Maoist group, left some 30,000 dead
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1981
Dec 11, The UN Security Council chose Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru to be the fifth secretary-general of the world body. He served to 1992
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1981
Mario Vargas Llosa of Peru wrote a fictional account of the 1893-1897 events at Canudos, Brazil, in the epic work: "The War of the End of the World"

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1982
Mar 2, In Peru over 50 Shining Path terrorists attack the prison of Ayacucho, releasing drug traffickers and 54 terrorists held there. The leader of the attack, Edith Lagos, was killed in the battle

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1982
The film "Fitzcarraldo" starred Klaus Kinski and was an Amazonian epic by Werner Herzog. It was inspired by a would-be rubber baron who hauled a boat over a Peruvian mountain to harvest a forest of rubber trees because he wanted to build an opera house in the jungle. In 2009 Herzog authored "conquest of the Useless: Reflections from the Making of Fitzcarraldo

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1982-1983
El Nino weather caused about $1 billion in damage

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1983
May 28, In Peru 15 peasants were murdered by soldiers near the village of Totos. A witness pointed out their graves in 2004.

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1983
The Cuban-inspired Tupac Amuru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) was formed
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1983
Tupac Amuru rebels stole the sword from the statue of the a Peruvian national hero
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1983
Seven journalists and their guide were slain in an Andean village

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1984
Dec 13, In Peru 123 people, including men, women and children from area farming communities, were slaughtered at Putis, in Ayacucho province. Army soldiers suspected the farmers supported guerrillas with the Shining Path. According to a later government-appointed truth commission, the military offered Putis as a safe haven for people fleeing Shining Path rebels in the region. Soldiers then tricked villagers into digging their own grave and killed them on suspicion of ties to the guerrillas. In 2008 a Peruvian forensics team began excavating a mass grave containing the remains of 123 men, women and children killed by the military at Putis. In 2009 DNA tests identified 28 of 92 bodies, including 15 women and five children
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1984
Hernando de Soto presented the results of his study on Peruu0092s informal economy. He had mapped the migration of mountain people to urban Lima, where they squatted on undeveloped public land and created vibrant informal economies. In 1986 he published his results in the book: "The Other Path"

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1984
The Cuban-inspired Tupac Amuru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) took up arms
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1985
Jul 28, In Peru Alan Garcia, leader of the American Peopleu0092s Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), assumed the presidency and led until 1990. Under his rule much of the nation's external debt was not serviced and the period was marked by 4-digit inflation, food shortages, intu0092l. isolation and terrorist attacks
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1985
Nov, In Peru rebels took over a Lima newspaper. Nestor Cerpa revealed himself as the leader. As Comrade Evaristo he had begun a series of attacks, takeovers and kidnappings
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1985
In Peru the military was involved in the massacre of 72 peasants in Accomarca, a village in the Ayacucho region, where the Shining Path was founded. In 2005 a judge issued arrest warrants for 29 current and former military officials for the massacre. In 2008 a US federal judge in Miami ordered former Peruvian Major Telmo Hurtado to pay $37 million for his role in the massacre in which 69 civilians were slain
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1985
The Ministry of Fisheries estimated that 9,700 dolphins were killed and sold as "chancho marinou" i.e. "sea pig"

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1985-1990
The government of Peru was led by Alan Garcia. Much of the nation's external debt was not serviced. The period was marked by 4-digit inflation, food shortages, intu0092l. isolation and terrorist attacks.
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1986
Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist, authored u0093The Other Path,u0094 in which he called the rise of a popular capitalism as opposed to the corporate state
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1986
In Lima, Peru, 150 imprisoned Shining Path rebels were killed following riots in 3 jails
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1987
Nov 2, During the All Souls holiday a 20 person raiding party of the Maoist Shining path attacked the mountain community of Lucanas. They burned down the municipal hall and several stores and then dragged a local political leader and 7 merchants from their homes and stoned them to death

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1988
May 14, Peruu0092s military was involved in the massacre of at least 26 peasants in the Andean village of Cayara. A week later the military executed 3 more peasants, before systematically killing 8 witnesses. In 2005 a Peruvian judge ordered the arrest of 118 current and retired military officials for the slayings
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1988
In Peru Tupac Amaru kidnapped industrialist Hector Jeri, a 70-year-old former air force general. He spent 5 months in a cell until released by a payment of more than $1 million
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1988
In southern Peru Eduardo and Mirtha Ananos began making a cola drink. By 2003 their Kola Real was being marketed in Mexico and Ecuador
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1988
In northern Peru a tomb was looted and its contents put on the black market. A golden head-dress, the image of a sea god, believed to have been taken from the La Mina archaeological site in the Jequetepeque valley, was recovered in 2006 by London police from a lawyeru0092s office
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1989
In Peru squatters occupied a Lima site known as Puruchuco-Huaquerones. As they built homes they kept bumping into Inca mummy bundles
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1989
Eduardo Nycander and Kurt Holle co-founded Rainforests Expeditions in Peru to use tourism to foster conservation

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1989
Gene Savoy, explorer, discovered pottery and monolithic tablets in the cloud forest of northern Peru that he said showed native contact with ancient cultures in other parts of the world. The area was the homeland of the Chachapoya Indian kingdom
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1990
May 29, Northern Peru was struck by an earthquake that claimed as many as 200 lives

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1990
Jun 10, Alberto Fujimori was elected president of Peru by a narrow margin over novelist Mario Vargos Llosa. Peru began to deal with its debt load for the first time since 1983. The principal was 4.4 bil and the back interest was estimated to be 4-4.3 bil
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1990
Jul 28, Political newcomer and upset winner Alberto Fujimori was sworn in as president of Peru
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1990
Vladimiro Montesinos became the head of Peruu0092s intelligence services.
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1990
In Peru 49 members of the MRTA, including their leader Victor Polay, escaped from the Canto Grande prison near Lima
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1990
In Peru the MRTA assassinated a former defense minister
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1990
The killing and selling of dolphins became illegal in Peru, and the market went underground
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1990
In Peru the inflation rate hit 7,500%

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1991
Nov 3, Hooded men with automatic weapons with silencers burst into the inner patio of a downtown Lima tenement and killed 15 people at a barbecue, including an 8-year-old boy. The Colina death squad run by Vladimiro Montesinos was suspected. In 2001 the attorney general asked Congress to pursue homicide charges against former Pres. Fujimori for the murders. In 2008 two survivors of the attack testified at the murder trial of former President Alberto Fujimori
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1991
Peruvians desperate for work rushed into the taxi and bus businesses with little training after Peru lowered used-vehicle import tariffs to ease a transport shortage

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1991
In Peru there was a cholera epidemic
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1992
Apr 5, Pres. Fujimori seized dictatorial power by sending tanks to shut down Peru's Congress and judiciary. Former president Alan Garcia fled Peru to avoid arrest by the Fujimori regime. In 2008 Peru's Cabinet chief testified at the trial of former President Alberto Fujimori that security forces attempted to assassinate Garcia following the shut down of Congress
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1992
Apr 6, In Peru journalist Gustavo Gorriti was kidnapped hours after Fujimori seized dictatorial powers, announcing over television that he was closing Congress because it was sabotaging his war against the rebels. Gorriti was released the next day after an intense campaign by international journalist associations and human rights groups for his freedom. Pres. Fujimori closed Congress and the judiciary and ruled by decree for the rest of the year.
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1992
Jul 18, In Peru 9 students and a univ. teacher were killed at La Cantuta Univ. Later retired Genu0092l. Rodolfo Robles charged that an army death squad, the Colina Group, was responsible. Death squad members were convicted and then released in a 1995 general amnesty. In 2008 a former general and three members of a military death squad were found guilty of participating in the kidnapping and murder
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1992
Sep 12, In Peru the Shining Path guerilla leader Abimael Guzman was captured by police chief Ketin Vidal with help from a CIA operative nick-named u0093Superman.u0094 Oscar Ramirez, aka Feliciano, took over the leadership. Guzman, a former philosophy professor, was tried by a military court and sentenced to life in jail. The verdict was overturned in Jan 2003
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1992
Victor Polay, chief of the Tupac Amaru guerrillas was captured with his chief lieutenant Peter Cardenas
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1992
In Peru Lt. Col. Ollanta Humala commanded a jungle counterinsurgency base. In 2006 criminal complaints accused Humala, a contender in presidential elections, of forced disappearance, torture and attempted murder during his 1992 command
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1992
Peruu0092s government sold rights to the countryu0092s annual vicuna production to Loro Piana, an Italian textile manufacturer. Piana formed a consortium which agreed to pay around $400 a kilogram (about 2 pounds) for the vicuna fleece
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1992
Chinau0092s Shougang company bought an iron ore mine in Peru. This was Chinau0092s first investment in the region
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1993
Apr, In Peru a younger sister of Luz Dina Villoslada was raped by the son of a local coffee grower. Authorities were bribed to drop the investigation. Luz Dina joined the Tupac Amaru guerrillas in rebellion. She was 20 years old and one of the 14 rebels slain in the 1997 Lima hostage siege
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1993
Jul, Top commanders of the Tupac Amaru guerrilla conceded defeat and surrendered
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1993
Nov 13, In Peru military officers attempted another coup against Pres. Fujimori
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1993 Mario Vargas Llosa published his book u0093Death in the Andesu0094 in Peru. The English version was published in 1996. It is a fictionalized account of some of the worst atrocities committed by and in reaction to Peruu0092s Sendero Luminoso (Shining path) guerrillas
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1993
In Peru Magno Sosa wrote u0093The Sin of Being a Journalistu0094 after spending 6 months wrongly imprisoned on terrorism charges after reporting on human rights violations
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1993
In Peru a new constitution was narrowly approved that allowed Fujimori to seek a 2nd 5-year term. It prohibited a 3rd term but 3 years later legislation was passed that excluded Fujimori from the restriction because his term began before the document was written
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1993
Peru ratified the Intu0092l. Labor Organizationu0092s convention on indigenous peoples
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1993
In Peru General Rodolfo Robles accused intelligence chief Vladimiro Montesinos of heading a government backed depth squad. The investigation was stone-walled by the government-loyal Congress
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1994
Aug 28, A Drug Enforcement Administration plane crashed in a remote area of Peru's cocaine-producing jungle, killing five U.S. agents
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1994
Mario Vargas Llosa published u0093A Fish in the Water,u0094 a memoir of his political campaign for the 1999 presidency
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1994
Lori Helene Berenson, an American, arrived in Peru from El Salvador where she had worked as the personal secretary to Leonel Gonzalez, top commander of the FMLN guerrillas
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1994
Alpacas from Peru began arriving in the US after barriers with Peru were removed
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1995
Jan, In Peru Manuel Lopez Paredes was arrested. Police discovered 3.5 tons of cocaine, valued at more than $600 million, ready for shipment by the family cartel
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1995
Apr 9, Alberto Fujimori was re-elected president of Peru in a landslide victory
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1995 Sep
The 500-year-old body of a young Inca girl was found frozen near the summit of Mt. Ampato, Peru, by American archeologist Johan Reinhard.
In 2005 Reinhard authored "The Ice Maiden: Inca Mummies, Mountain Gods, and the Sacred Sites in the Andes"

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1995 Nov
Lori Helene Berenson, an American, was arrested on charges of aiding MRTA. She was convicted and sentenced to life in prison. Also arrested was Nancy Gilvonio, wife of Nestor Cerpa, a Tupac Amaru rebel

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1995
In Peru a new government austerity program slowed the growth rate to 3.7% ـــــ
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1995
Peruu's government under President Alberto Fujimori began a family planning program. It promoted birth control as a way to reduce family size and poverty. It was later cited as taking advantage of poor rural women to meet quotas in sloppy operations under unsanitary conditions. At least 2 women were reported to have died and hundreds injured from the operations. From 1995-2000 more than 300,000 women were sterilized, mostly poor, illiterate Indians
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1995
Ecuador engaged in a border war with Peru. Argentine arms were transported to Ecuador by the US Fine Air airline owned by Barry and Lary Fine. The Fine brothers were tried in absentia in Lima in 1997

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1995-1998
The central government opened schools in 95 Ayacucho villages and potable water systems in 66 villages. The Shining Path rebellion had killed some 30,000 people, mostly from Ayacucho province
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1996
Jan 11, Lori Berenson was sentenced to life in prison. In 2000 a military tribunal overturned the life sentence and opened the way for a civilian trial
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1996
Jan, Alberto Andrade, a wealthy leather-goods maker, was elected mayor of Lima (pop. 7.5 mil.). He moved his family downtown and began efforts to revitalize the city
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1996
Feb 29, Mar 2, A Boeing 737 of the Peruvian domestic Fawcett Airlines crashed in the southern Andes and killed 123 people
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1996 May 18
A 40 year agreement was signed between Royal Dutch/Shell and Perupetro, Peruu0092s state oil company. Royal Dutch will spend $2.7 bil to develop a natural gas field
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1996 May
Telefonica del Peru is the fastest publicly traded telephone company in the world

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1996 Aug
Demetrio Chavez Penaherrera, an imprisoned drug lord, told a court that the chief of intelligence, Vladimiro Montesinos, accepted bribes of $50,000 per month in 1991-1992
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2-10-1996
The Aeroperu flight 603, a Boeing 757, crashed shortly after takeoff into the Pacific and all 61 passengers and nine crew members were killed. The pilot claimed loss of navigational equipment just before the crash. It was later reported that a maintenance worker failed to remove tape from sensors after polishing the aircraft. A judge ordered Aeroperu and the worker to pay $29 million to families of the 70 dead
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1996
Nov 12, A 6.4 earthquake hit the country centered in the Pacific Ocean about 83 miles west of Nazca, 235 miles southeast of Lima. About 17 people were killed and some 1500 injured in the 7.7 earthquake
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1996
Nov 26, Gen'l Rodolfo Robles was arrested at the request of the Supreme Military Justice Council for insubordination.
see 1992

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1996
Dec 17, In Peru guerrillas took over a party at the house of the Japanese ambassador in Lima. They identified themselves as members of the Tupac Amaru guerrilla movement and demanded the release of imprisoned guerrillas. Nestor Cerpa Cartolini was later identified as the leader of the 20 or so guerrillas. Cerpau0092s common-law wife, Nancy Gilvonio, was one of the imprisoned guerrillas whom he demanded be released. Pres. Fujimoriu0092s brother was one of the hostages. All but 72 hostages were later released; the siege ended April 22, 1997, with a commando raid that resulted in the deaths of all the rebels, two commandos and one hostage
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1996
Dec 20, A handful of rebels released 38 hostages and some 340 remained captive. The rebels demanded concessions before any more would be released
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1996
Dec 22, Peruvian guerrillas holding more than 360 hostages at the Japanese ambassador's residence in Lima released 225 hostages but still held 140 of their captives
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1996
Dec 24, In Peru the Uruguay ambassador was released after his country freed 2 rebels jailed there. Six ambassadors were left among the remaining 105 hostages
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1996
Dec 25, Peruvians held candles high and prayed outside the Japanese ambassador's residence, where leftist rebels freed one hostage for health reasons, but continued to hold more than 100 others
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1996
Dec 27, Pres. Fujimori declared a 60-day state of emergency
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1996
Dec 28, Leftist rebels in Peru released 20 more hostages, including two ambassadors, from Japan's embassy residence, following the first face-to-face talks between guerrillas and the government's negotiator
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1996
Dec 31, Leftist rebels in Peru released two diplomats, leaving 81 hostages in the besieged Japanese embassy residence in Lima
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1996
The office of People's Defender, Defensorio del Pueblo, was created to protect Peruvians from abuse by public officials. The office was directed by Jorge Santistevan
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1997
Jan 2, Pres. Fujimori replaced the president of the Supreme Court and six police generals, who were among the hostages held by Tupac Amaru rebels. The hostage count was down to 74
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1997
Jan 15, In Peru intelligence officers took Leonor LaRosa, a fellow intelligence agent, into custody and began torturing her on accusations that she informed newspapers of military plans to intimidate and assassinate opposition activists and journalists. La Rosa named 4 intelligence agents as directly responsible. Ricardo Anderson was named as one of the 4 agents
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1997
Feb 17, Leonor La Rosa was taken to a military hospital following her torture and beatings
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1997
Feb 18, At least 33 people were killed and a hundred were missing after an Andean mountain collapsed and buried the villages of Choch and Pumaranra near Abancay
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1997
Mar, Foreign officials and local journalists confirmed that the police were digging tunnels to the residence of the Japanese ambassador where hostages were being held by the Tupac Amaru rebels
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1997
Mar, In Peru the body of Mariela Barreto, an intelligence officer, was found with her head and hands hacked off and her spine snapped in half
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1997
Apr 6, Leonor LaRosa revealed her torture and beatings to a television station
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1997
Apr 22, In Peru on day 126 of the hostage crises government commandos stormed the home of the Japanese envoy in Lima and freed 71 hostages. Two soldiers, all 14 Tupac Amaru rebels and one hostage, Justice Carlos Giusti, died in the assault. Later reports indicated that some rebels were killed while trying to surrender and that their bodies may have been mutilated. The government planned to bury them in scattered unmarked graves. In 2002 forensic evidence indicated that 8 of 14 rebels were shot from behind after they surrendered at the end of the siege. A prosecutor then filed charges against 18 army officers for executing 3 rebels after they surrendered. On Oct 15, 2003, a secret military court dismissed charges against 140 commandos accused of summarily executing three leftist rebels during a 1997 hostage rescue at the Japanese ambassador's residence
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1997
May 5, The 24 miners who dug tunnels for the Peruvian commandoes had still not returned home and their families feared for their lives. Two men were killed or injured in the digging operation
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1997
May 22, Security forces captured the leaders of 2 Maoist Shining Path units after a weeklong operation
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1997
May 29, The congressional majority of Pres. Fujimori fired 3 constitutional court judges who had ruled against his bid for a 3rd consecutive term
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1997
May, A military court sentenced 4 army officers to 8 years in prison for the torture of Leonor LaRosa
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1997
Jul 6, The English translation of u0093Making Wavesu0094 by Mario Vargas Llosa was reviewed. The work is a collection of essays that go back to 1962
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1997
Jul 17, Thousands of demonstrators protested against Pres. Fujimore chanting u0093Down with the dictatorship.u0094 Three cabinet ministers had also resigned in the last 24 hours
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1997
Jul 17, Pres. Fujimori named 5 new ministers including 2 generals and sparked concern that he was moving even closer to the armed forces
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1997
Aug 8, In Peru at least 20 bus passengers were killed in a crash in the province of Cuzco. Some 80 people have died in 4 bus crashes in the last week-------------------
1997
Aug 10, A snowstorm trapped some 40 vehicles on the Andes highway between Abancay and Puquio and left 6 people dead in their vehicles
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1997
Aug, Two small planes collided at the Nazca archeological site and 12 people were killed
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1997
Sep 29, The government announced that the practice of trying guerrillas by hooded anonymous judges would end Oct 15
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1997
Nov 25, President Clinton and Pacific Rim leaders meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia, approved a rescue strategy for Asian economies shaken by plunging currencies, bank failures and bankruptcies. The 2-day APEC summit in Vancouver closed and leaders agreed to an IMF bailout plan. Forum leaders also agreed to admit Russia, Vietnam and Peru into the organization as of 1998
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1997
Dec 2, Pres. Fujimori ended the yearlong ban on visits by the Red Cross to jailed leftist suspects

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1997
Dec 12, Archeologists announced the finding of a 2nd mummy of a young Inca sacrificed over 500 years ago near the summit of Mt. Ampato, not far from Peruu0092s 2nd city Arequipa
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1997
Dec 26, Police reported that a Peruvian family hacked 2 Japanese students to death. The students had rowed on the Amazon for hundreds of miles with plans to reach Manaus
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1997
Jolanda and Titus from the Netherlands began adopting street children in Cuzco, Peru. They soon opened a hotel to provide financial support and soon expanded operations into a collective known as the Ninos Projects. By 2003 some 250 children were involved.
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1997
A study by the Peruvian government found that the countryu0092s glaciers had shrunk by 22% over the last 30 years. In the Carabaya range they had receded by 32%
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1998
Jan 19, Peru and Ecuador signed an accord pledging to settle their longtime 49-mile border conflict by May
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1998
Jan 29, A mudslide in Choco killed at least 31 people. Floods and mudslides have killed over 100 and left 25,000 homeless in the last few months
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1998
Feb 6, Peruu0092s Pres. Fujimori took personal control in Piura to shore up the waters of the Ica River which burst its banks. Recent weather related deaths had reached 150. Mudslide damaged parts of the famous Nazca Lines
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1998
Feb 10, The Supreme Court ruled that Pres. Fujimori would be allowed to run for re-election to a 3rd tem in 2000 if he wants to
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1998
Feb 25, It was reported that the country was abandoning its campaign of sterilizing women
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1998
Mar 29, In Peru an air force plane evacuating people stranded by flooding crashed in Piura. Twenty-two people were killed when a Russian-made Antonov military plane crashed into a Peruvian shantytown outside the northern city of Piura
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1998
Apr 24, Pres. Fujimori announced that police captured 3 top guerrilla leaders of the Shining Path

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1998
May 6, A Boeing 737, chartered by Occidental Petroleum from the Peruvian air force, crashed in the Amazon jungle. At least 13 of 87 people survived the crash
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1998
May, The novel u0093The Notebooks of Don Rigobertou0094 by Mario Vargas Llosa was translated into English by Edith Grossman. His earlier novels included u0093Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter,u0094 u0093The War of the End of the World,u0094 and u0093the Storyteller"
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1998
Jun 8, Maria Reiche, a German mathematician, died in Lima at age 95. She had spent over 50 years protecting the ancient Nazca Lines using money from the sale of a book about the drawings
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1998
Aug 21, It was reported that a comprehensive treaty between Ecuador and Peru had been drafted and only required political will to end the 57-year-old conflict. The military in Ecuador held 23 large companies in areas such as auto assembly, shrimping, mining, oil and hotels

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1998
cSep 15, Archeologist found 6 frozen mummies sacrificed to Inca gods over 500 years ago near the crater of the 19,100 foot El Misti volcano, 465 miles southeast of Lima
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1998
Sep 30, Some 5,000 workers marched in Lima to protest a congressional vote that quashed calls for a referendum over whether Pres. Fujimori could run for re-election. 300 workers stormed the parade ground of the presidential palace
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1998
Oct 16, Lawmakers in Ecuador and Peru agreed to let their border dispute be resolved by the US, Brazil, Chile and Argentina
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1998
Oct 23, Peru and Ecuador settled their border dispute with a line along the Cordellera de Condor mountain range. Contiguous national parks were to be created in the disputed area. Tiwintza Hill, allocated to Peru, was to be granted as private property to Ecuador
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1998
Oct 26, Ecuador and Peru signed a peace treaty in Brazil and settled their land dispute. The agreement defined a 49-mile border left undrawn in a 1942 treaty

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1998 Dec 25
In Lima, Peru, a tear gas bomb caused a stampede in a disco and 9 young people, 13-21, were crushed to death. The bomb was said to have been thrown by members of a youth gang
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1998
Jordan received ok from the American CIA to sell 50,000 surplus AK-47 assault rifles to Peru. Many of the rifles went to leftist guerrillas in Colombia and Vladimiro Montesinos, Peruu's spy chief, was implicated

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1999
Jan 3, Pres. Fujimori named Joy Way, head of Congress, as prime minister

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1999
Apr 28, In Peru labor unions staged a nation-wide strike to protest stagnant living standards

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1999
May 13, Ecuador and Peru signed a treaty settling their 50-year border dispute over a 50 mile stretch in the Amazon jungle
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1999
Jun 3, In Peru rebels of the Maoist Shining Path killed 9 people in 2 incidents in the highlands
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1999
Jun 15, In Peru Maoist Shining Path rebels killed 8 people in a remote village in the center of the country
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1999
Jul 13, Oscar Ramirez (46), aka Feliciano and head of the Shinning Path, was surrounded by the military
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1999
Jul 14, In Peru army soldiers captured Oscar Ramirez Durand (46), aka Comrad Feliciano, head of the Shining Path rebels. He was later sentenced by a military tribunal to life in prison
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1999
Aug 17, Officials reported that Carlos Audel Nunez, a Shining Path rebel leader aka "Comrade Manuel," was killed along with his wife in a clash with military forces
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1999
Oct 2, Two rebels died from gunfire with soldiers near Satipo
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1999
Oct 3, In Peru 9 soldiers were killed in a weekend clash with some 60 Maoist guerrillas in the central jungle

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1999
Oct 22, In Peru 28 school children died near Cuzco after a breakfast of cereal that doctors suspect was prepared in a vat once used to mix pesticides
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1999
Nov 4, It was reported that a coca plant fungus was sweeping the area of the Huallaga Valley, and some observers blamed US anti-drug programs

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1999
cNov 12, At least 46 people were buried alive in a mudslide in Tacabamba

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1999
Nov 13, Peru and Chile signed an agreement to end a 120-year territorial dispute. Peru was granted the exclusive use of a pier in the Chilean port of Arica
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27-12-1999
Pres. Fujimori announced his candidacy for a 3rd term as president

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1999
The TV talk show "Laura en America" ran an episode, Anything for Money, that featured humiliating acts by low paid poor people before a live audience. The popular show was hosted by lawyer Laura Bozzo, aka Dr. Laura
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1999
American explorer Gene Savoy discovered a pre-Incan metropolis in Peru, naming it Gran Saposoa, and concluded it was one of the cities of the Chachapoyas kingdom
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History of Peru      (36Mil BC -2000 Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: Year 2000   History of Peru      (36Mil BC -2000 Icon_minitimeالأحد مارس 16, 2014 9:51 pm

10-1-2000
In Peru a passenger bus plunged into the Mantaro River 90 miles northeast of Lima and at least 27 people were killed
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1-2-2000  
In Peru Shining Path rebels killed 3 park rangers in a reserve for vicuna
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6-2-2000  
In Peru riots began in the Yanamayo prison by Shining Path rebels loyal to Oscar Ramirez Durand. One guard and one rebel were killed and rebels held a number of guards as hostages
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5-4-2000  
In Peru Alejandro Toledo (54), the u0093Cholo,u0094 rose dramatically in the polls as opposition candidate to Pres. Alberto Fujimori, the "Chino"Toledo represented the Peru Possible Party
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9-4-2000  
Pres. Fujimori led Alejandro Toledo with 48% of the vote and a runoff was planned
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11-4-2000
  In Peru the vote count reached 49.79% for Pres. Fujimori and tensions mounted under suspected irregularities
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12-4-2000  
In Peru officials announced that a runoff election would be held between Pres. Fujimori and Alejandro Toledo
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22-5-2000
In Peru election observers suspended monitoring preparations for elections. Alejandro Toledo formally pulled out of the race after his demand for an election postponement was rebuffed
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28-5-2000    
In Peru Pres. Fujimori claimed victory with 50.8% of the vote in elections tainted by alleged fraud and irregularities
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29-5-2000  
The US State Dept. called the vote in Peru invalid
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2-6-2000  
In Peru a truck leaving the Yanacocha gold mine leaked 330 pounds of liquid mercury. Local residents soon suffered mercury poisoning. A legal suit against Denver-based Newmont  Mining moved forward in 2005
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29-6-2000  
The OAS said it would set up a permanent office in Lima to oversee democratic reforms
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28-7-2000  
Violent protests  took place as Pres. Fujimori was sworn in for his 3rd term and 5 people were killed in fires set by vandals
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14-9-2000  
In Peru a video was broadcast that showed Vladimiro Montesinos, the countryu0092s chief spy, bribing congressman Alberto Kouri to support Pres. Fujimori. The heads of Peruu0092s 14 military divisions were all from the military-school class of Montesinos. The annual military budget was $1.5 billion. There were allegations that Montesinos was involved in the sale of AK47 assault rifles to rebels in Colombia. In 2009 Fujimori acknowledged that soon after the video emerged he paid Montesinos $15 million in state money to quit
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16-9-2000  
  Pres. Fujimori, engulfed in a bribery scandal, announced that he would call an immediate general election and not seek office. He also decided to deactivate the National Intelligence Service.
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24-9-2000      
Vladimiro Montesinos, Peruu0092s ousted spy chief, fled to Panama
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28-9-2000  
Pres. Fujimori flew to Washington to meet with OAS officials as rumors of a coup swirled
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2000        Oct 6
In Peru a 5,000 barrel oil spill by an Argentine company threatened the water resources of some 10,000 inhabitants in the northern jungle
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2000        Oct 11
A law was published that called for the disbanding of the 5,000 person National Intelligence Service within 15 days
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2000        Oct 23
In Peru Vladimiro Montesinos, the former intelligence chief, landed in Pisco as police and protesters clashed in Lima
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2000        Oct 25
Pres. Fujimori ordered the arrest of Vladimiro Montesinos
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2000        Oct 29
Lt. Col. Ollanta Humala led some 51 soldiers in a revolt against pres. Fujimori in Toquepala. They kidnapped Gen. Oscar Bardales. In 2006 former spy chief Vladimiro Montesinos called Humala's uprising a "farce, an operation of deception and manipulation" designed to "facilitate my exit from the country on the sailboat Karisma"ـ
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2000        Oct 30
A revolt of renegade troops drew to a close as most of those involved were rounded up. Lt. Col Humala and 7 soldiers remained at large
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2000        Nov 3
Swiss authorities froze about $50 million in bank accounts tied to Vladimiro Montesinos, the ex-spy chief of Peru
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2000        Nov 13
Lawmakers ousted Martha Hildebrandt, a supporter of Pres. Fujimori, from her post as president of Congress
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2000        Nov 16
Valentin Paniagua was elected Congress president over Ricardo Marcenaro, a Fujimori loyalist, 64-51
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2000        Nov 17
A government report acknowledged that over 4,000 people disappeared between 1980 and 1996 on suspicion of being leftist guerrillas
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2000        Nov 19
In Tokyo Pres. Fujimori said he would resign within 48 hours
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2000        Nov 20
Pres. Fujimori announced his resignation from Tokyo. Acting president Ricardo Marquez also stepped down
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2000        Nov 21
The legislature refused to accept the resignation of Pres. Fujimori and ousted him for moral incapacity
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2000        Nov 22
Valentin Paniagua was sworn in as the interim president. He selected Javier Perez de Cuellar, the former UN Sec. General, as prime minister
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2000        Nov 25
Walter Ledesma, the new defense minister, announced the immediate dismissal of 12 generals.
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2000        Dec 16
It was reported that the source of the Amazon had been located at the Carhuasanta Creek on the 18,363-foot peak of Nevado Mismi in southern Peru.
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2000        Dec 28
Congress voted to overhaul the election system
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2000      
Mario Vargos Llosa of Peru authored his historical novel "The Feast of the Goat" It explored the cruel regime of General Trujillo in the Dominican Rep
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2000      
 Hernando de Soto, Peruvian economist, authored u0093The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else,u0094 in which he argued that because the poor lacked title to their assets, they could not take advantage of them and were stuck with "dead capital"
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2000      
 Arequipa, "the white city"  was inscribed as a World Heritage site by UNESCO
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الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
https://pearls.yoo7.com
 
History of Peru (36Mil BC -2000
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 مواضيع مماثلة
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