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 الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ)

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عدد المساهمات : 3574
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/09/2008

الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ) Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ)   الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ) Icon_minitimeالسبت فبراير 23, 2013 8:26 pm

سنة 1520

22-9-1520
مات سلطان الدولة العثمانية السلطان سليم الأول ابن السلطان بايزيد الثاني بن السلطان محمد الفاتح
نبذة عنه : ولد في 10-10-1470م حكم لثمانية سنوات بدءا من عام 1512 وحتى وفاته.
ولم يجرؤ المسلمين بإطلاق لقب خليفة عليه بالرغم من أنه حكم البلاد التى غالبيتها من المسلمين فى الشرق الأوسط وذلك لأنه لم يكن عربياً ولا قرشياً ,
يعرف لدى الغرب و البعض ب(Selim the Grim) أي سليم العابس و يلقب كذلك ب (ياوز) وتعنى باللغة التركية الشجاع
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926هـ 1520م
تولي سلطنة الدولة العثمانية السلطان العثماني سليمان القانوني
عاشر سلاطين الدولة العثمانية
نبذة عنه :
اسمه هو (سليمان بن سليم الأول بن بايزيد بن محمد الفاتح)
ولد في 1-8-900هـ الموافق 27-4-1495م في مدينة طرابزون
نشأ محباً للعلم والأدب والعلماء والأدباء والفقهاء ، واشتهر منذ شبابه بالجدية
بعد وصول نبأ وفاة أبيه السلطان سليم توجه سليمان قاصداً اسلامبول (القسطنطينية سابقاً)إذ كانت الإنكشارية في انتظاره هناك و بعد مراسيم التشييع و الدفن و التعزية و التهنئة كانت باكورة أعماله تعيين مربيه (قاسم باشا )مستشاراً خاصاً له
ثمّ أبلغ كافة الولاة و أشراف مكة و المدينة بتوليه الخلافة و بخطاب مفعم بالنصائح و الآيات القرآنية المبينة فضل العدل و القسط في الأحكام و وخامة عاقبة الظلم .
و حينما وصل نبأ تقلده زمام الحكم إلى دمشق أعلن حاكم الشام جانبرد الغزالي تمرده ، وحاول تحريض حاكم مصر (خير بك )على الثورة واتصل ب (خير بك ) والي مصر ليكون نصيره فراوغه ووعده ، وفي الوقت نفسه خدعه فأطلع السلطان سليمان على مراسلاته له.
، وكان متأنياً في جميع أموره ولا يتعجل في الأعمال التي يريد تنفيذها بل كان يفكر بعمق ثم يقرر وإذا اتخذ قراراً لا يرجع عنه، وفي عهده بلغت الدولة أوج قوتها واتساعها.
تولى الخلافة وعمره 26 عاماً
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قرر سليمان فتح بلجراد وتصميمه على فتحها على عدة اعتبارات سياسية وإستراتيجية؛ فالمجر كانت الخصم الأكبر للعثمانيين والاسلام في أوروبا الشرقية بعد زوال مملكتي صربيا وبلغاريا و الإمبراطورية البيزنطية،
كما أن المجر حالت دون نشرالإسلام في أوربا الشرقية خاصة في عهد "هونيادي" وابنه "ماتياس كورفين" اللذين تبنيا مشروعا صليبيا لطرد العثمانيين من أوربا.

ورأى سليمان أن الإمبراطورين المجريين "لادسلاس جاجلون" و"لويس الثاني" لم يستغلا ظروف الدولة العثمانية أثناء قتال الصفويين والمماليك للتهيؤ لحرب العثمانيين؛ وهو ما جعله يوقن أن المجرأضعف من الدولة العثمانية.

لكن كانت العلاقات بين الجانبين تنظمها معاهدة موقعة بينهما،
وكان هناك خروقات غير جدية لهذه المعاهدة تتمثل في المناوشات على الحدود بين العثمانيين والمجريين . ولكن لم تكن لدي سليمان الذريعة القانونية التي تمكنه من شن حرب على المجريين المشاكسين

ولكنه بتأمل الأوضاع الدولية وقتها وجد اشارات ستكون محصلتها توقف أوربا عن نصرة بلجراد إن قام هو بغزوها؛
فالبندقية كانت تناقش عقد معاهدة تجارية مع العثمانيين، ولم يكن لها صالح في أن تدخل في حرب ضد الدولة العثمانية تأييدا للمجر.
وكل من الفاتيكان وملك بولندا ليس لديه مبرر للتدخل لمساندة بلجراد، في وقت كانت أوربا على وشك حالة من الانقسام الديني بسبب دعوة "مارتن لوثر" الدينية الجديدة التي تزامنت مع بدايات تحرك السلطان سليمان نحو بلجراد.
والفرنسيون نصحوا ملك المجر "لويس" بإبرام هدنة مع العثمانيين أي قبول دفع الجزية من جديد
أما الألمان فكانوا مشغولين عن مساندة بلجراد ببعض العوامل الداخلية،

أرسل سليمان إلى المجر ليطالبهم بدفع الجزية السنوية المقترحة في مقابل تجديد الهدنة معهم
وفجأة قام ملك المجر المغرور بقتل الرسول الذي أرسلته الدولة العثمانية
ووجد سليمان أن تلك الجريمة الشنعاء هي سبب كافي قانوناً للحرب على المجر.
__________________
أخذ سليمان في الترتيب لفتح بلجراد طوال شتاء (926 هـ= 1520م)، فجمع قوات النخبة العثمانية المسماة "السباهية" من عدد من الولايات، وزاد في عدد القوات النظامية، وأصدر الأوامر لأصحاب الصنائع في الجهات المختلفة في الطريق إلى بلجراد بالاستعداد وأن ينفذوا ما يطلب منهم، وأمر بتخزين المؤن والحيوانات على طول الطريق إلى بلجراد، وتم تعهد الطرق والجسور على طول الطريق بالإصلاح والترميم.

وأصر سليمان القانوني أن يكون خروجه يوما مشهودا يشهده سفراء الدول الأجنبية في الدولة العثمانية، وكان يهدف من وراء ذلك إلى القيام بحرب نفسية ضد المجر، وحرب نفسية أخرى ضد الأوربيين حتى لا يفكروا في تقديم يد العون العسكري لبلجراد، لعلمه أن هؤلاء السفراء سيرسلون إلى دولهم بحجم هذه الاستعدادات

وكان في مقدمة الجيش الهمايوني 6000من فرسان الحرس الإمبراطوري بأزيائهم الرائعة، وخيولهم الأصيلة، وأسلحتهم الحديثة
وكان في الحملة 3000جمل محملة بالذخيرة والبارود، و30000 جمل محملة بالمهمات، وسفينة محملة بالخيول كانت تسير في نهر ألطونة (الدانوب)، و50 سفينة حربية، و10 آلاف عجلة محملة بالطحين والشعير، وعدد من الأفيال المدرعة، والمدافع.

وكان الجيش يسير وفق نظام دقيق محكم، فكان الجنود يرحلون من معسكر إلى آخر مع أول ضوء من النهار، ثم يحطون رحالهم مع الظهيرة ليستريحوا، في مكان تم اختياره من قبل، وتم تجهيزه قبل أن ينزل فيه الجيش، فكان النظام هو السمة الرئيسية في التحرك، أما السمة الثانية فكانت العدل، فكان الجيش يتحمل تكاليف كل عطب تسبب فيه أثناء سيره إذا لم يقم بإصلاحه، وكان كل شيء يُشترى لا بد أن يدفع ثمنه في الحال، وكان كل من يقوم بأعمال اللصوصية يُعدم في الحال.

وفي أثناء سير الجيش الهمايوني لحق به الوزير الشجاع ( فرحات باشا ) ومعه عدة آلاف من الإبل محملة بالذخيرة والمدافع، والقمح والشعير، أما الصدر الأعظم ( بير باشا ) فسبق جيش سليمان وعسكر تحت أسوار قلعة بلجراد الحصينة،
وعندما وصل سليمان وجنوده نصبوا المدافع فوق الجزيرة في ملتقى نهر الدانوب، وبدأت المدافع تقصف القلعة بدون انقطاع حسب الخطة الموضوعة، وتوالت الهجمات تلو الهجمات طيلة 3 أسابيع، لكنها كانت دون جدوى.

وفي هذه الأثناء قدم أحد الأوربيين نصيحته لسليمان بأن ينسف أكبر برج في التحصينات في القلعة لأن انهياره سوف يؤدي إلى انهيار معنويات المدافعين عن القلعة.

وبالفعل تم نسف البرج وانهارت معنويات المجريين والصرب المدافعين عن القلعة رغم ما أبدوه من بسالة في القتال، ثم ضرب سليمان القانوني ضربته الثانية للتفريق بين الصرب والمجريين، حيث وعد الصرب بالحفاظ على حياتهم إذا تركوا المجريين يقاتلون وحدهم فاستجابوا له ووجد المجريون أنفسهم وحدهم في الميدان، فقتل أغلبهم وفتحت القلعة في (4 من رمضان 927هـ = 8 من أغسطس 1521م)
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25 -9-927هـ
29 -8- 1521م
أتم فتح بلجراد المدينة
وسرعان ما انتشرت أخبار الانتصار في العالم، وأرسل الأوربيون في البندقية وروسيا وفودا للتهنئة بالفتح.

وقد تسبب فتح بلجراد في وضع مأساوي لمملكة المجر، فقد توفي ملكها ( لويس الثاني ) من القهر بعد سماع نبأ الهزيمة وسقوط بلجراد حصن المسيحية في أوربا الشرقية، ولم تلبث المجر أن انهارت على يد سليمان بعد معركة صحراء موهاكس الشهيرة، وتدفق العثمانيون على أوربا كالسيل

وبقي سليمان في المدينة 19 يوما، ثم تركها بعدما ترك فيها حامية من 3 آلاف جندي و200 مدفع، وعاد من حملته بعد حوالي 5 أشهر.

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927 هـ
1521م
سار جانبرد الغزالي بجيشه ليستولي علي حلب وحاصرها بالفعل لكن قبل أن تسقط في يده وصلت الجيوش العثمانية بقيادة ( فرحات باشا ) فترك الحصار ، وأسرع إلى دمشق ليتحصن بها ، فلحقته الجيوش وحاصرته بدمشق ، فخرج للقتال يوم 17-2-927 هـ فانهزم هو وجنده ، وفر الغزالي متنكراً ، ولكن بعض أعوانه أسروه وسلموه إلى فرحات باشا قائد الجيوش العثمانية فقتله.
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1521م
صار جون الثالث ملكاً علي البرتغال
واستمر حتي 1557م وكان همه هو الاستكشافات البحرية ولاسيما في البرازيل
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29 -8- 1521م
أتم فتح بلجراد المدينة
وسرعان ما انتشرت أخبار الانتصار في العالم، وأرسل الأوربيون في البندقية وروسيا وفودا للتهنئة بالفتح.

وقد تسبب فتح بلجراد في وضع مأساوي لمملكة المجر، فقد توفي ملكها ( لويس الثاني ) من القهر بعد سماع نبأ الهزيمة وسقوط بلجراد حصن المسيحية في أوربا الشرقية، ولم تلبث المجر أن انهارت على يد سليمان بعد معركة صحراء موهاكس الشهيرة، وتدفق العثمانيون على أوربا كالسيل

وبقي سليمان في المدينة 19 يوما، ثم تركها بعدما ترك فيها حامية من 3 آلاف جندي و200 مدفع، وعاد من حملته بعد حوالي 5 أشهر.

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927 هـ
1521م
سار جانبرد الغزالي بجيشه ليستولي علي حلب وحاصرها بالفعل لكن قبل أن تسقط في يده وصلت الجيوش العثمانية بقيادة ( فرحات باشا ) فترك الحصار ، وأسرع إلى دمشق ليتحصن بها ، فلحقته الجيوش وحاصرته بدمشق ، فخرج للقتال يوم 17-2-927 هـ فانهزم هو وجنده ، وفر الغزالي متنكراً ، ولكن بعض أعوانه أسروه وسلموه إلى فرحات باشا قائد الجيوش العثمانية فقتله.
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1521م
صار جون الثالث ملكاً علي البرتغال
واستمر حتي 1557م وكان همه هو الاستكشافات البحرية ولاسيما في البرازيل

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سنة 926هـ/1520م
البحرين : سافر مقرن إلى الحجاز لأداء فريضة الحج وقام مقامه في الحكم ابن أخته الشيخ حميد,


[LPD1520]
----------------------
926هـ :
إزالة الوجود الأسباني من مدينة (الجزائر )
كان الإسبان قد أخذوا (طرابلس الغرب ) من بني حفص عام 916هـ ، وبنزول الإسبان في طرابلس شعر السكان بالخطر الصليبي يتهددهم ، فأرسلوا إلى السلطان العثماني سليمان وفداً عام 926 هـ يستغيثون به ، فأخذهم بقوة صغيرة بإمرة ( مراد آغا ) الذي نزل شرق طرابلس ، وسار لحصارها ، لكنه لم يتمكن من فتحها ، وجاءت قوة من جنوه ونابولي الإيطاليتين وغزت بعض سواحل بلاد المسلمين ، واحتلت بعضها ومنها جزيرة جربا التونسية.
عندئذ أحس الخليفة العثماني بالخطر الصليبي هناك ، فأرسل الأسطول العثماني بقيادة ( طورغول ) الذي هاجم الإسبان في طرابلس ، وفتح المدينة ، وطرد النصارى الإسبان منها ، وتولى الإمارة فيها ، كما أخرج الإسبان من بنزرت ووهران ، وغزا ميورقة ، وكورسيكا.

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سنة 1521
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13-8-1521
انتزع الغزاة الأسبان بقيادة الفاتح الأسباني <هيرناندو كورتيز > مدينة تتينوتشتيتلان من أيدي الأزتيك وهم قبائل من الهنود الحمر
والاسم الحالي للمدينة Tenochtitlan هو مكسيكوMexico City
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8-8-1521
فتح الجيش العثماني مدينة بلجراد
وكان ذلك في عهد السلطان سليمان القانوني و كانت تعد مفتاح أوربا الوسطى
وأقوى قلعة على حدود الدولة العثمانية مع المجر،
ملحوظة: سبق فنح بلجراد ثلاثة محاولات فاشلة سنة 1441م وسنة1456م وسنة1492 في الثلاثة محاولات اضطر الجيش العثماني لفك الحصار إلي أجل ولم ييأس
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927
ذبح المسلمين في مدينة بلنسية الواقعة تحت النفوذ الأسباني
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927
استولي البرتغاليون على مجمل شواطئ المغرب الأقصى
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سنة 1522
==========

1522
حركة تمرد المماليك عام 928هـ/1522م بزعامة جانم السيفي وأينال السيفي،
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1522

الوالى أحمد باشا ينصب نفسه سلطاناً
لما تولي الوالي أحمد باشا بعده أعلن السلطنة في مصر وكان يعاونه اليهود بالمال إلا أنه قتل عام 1524
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سنة 1523
==========
.=

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سنة 1524
► في عام 930هـ/1524م
حركة تمرد والي مصر العثماني أحمد باشا الخائن .
===========================
► في 1524
كان دولة الشاه اسماعيل الصفوى وصلت حدودها إلى ما كانت عليه أيام الساسانيين ؛ فشملت فارس والعراق وخوزستان وكرمان وخراسان

كانت الهزيمة التى لاقاها أسماعيل الصفوى من سليم الأول قاسية ثقيلة عليه فلم يكن قد انهزم من قبل ؛ فانصرف إلى العزلة، وغلب عليه اليأس، وارتدى لباسا أسود اللون، ووضع على رأسه عمامة، وكتب على أعلامه السوداء كلمة "القصاص"، وأدمن الخمر ، وشغل نفسه بالتفكير في طريقة الانتقام من غريمه سليم الأول،

وشجعته وفاة سليم الأول المفاجئة على أن يجمع قوة عسكرية ، لكنه مات متأثرا بالسل وهو شاب عمره سبعة وثلاثون عاما في (18 من رجب سنة 930هـ= 31 من مايو 1524م) على مقربة من أذربيجان، ودفن في أربيل إلى جوار أجداده، وخلفه في الحكم طهماسب الأول .


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سنة 1525

جاء مصر الوزير ( أبراهيم باشا ) ووضع سياسة للإدارة جديدة .

فكون أول حكومة عسكرية عثمانية وعلي رأسها الوالي أو الباشا يعاونه مجلس إستشاري يجتمع أربع مرات في الإسبوع.

وقسم مصر 14 سنجق (محافظة) يرأسها الضباط العثمانيون ومهمتهم تنظيم الري وجمع الضرائب.

وكان بيت المال مسئولا عن دفع 16 مليون بارة للآسالتة سنويا .


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سنة 1526
=========

.

############################
سنة 1527
► في 22-7-1527
موت الفيلسوف الإيطالي <نيقولا ميكيافيللي>
القائل بمبدأ تشجيع السياسة اللاأخلاقية مستنداً حسب قوله إلي أن"الغاية تبرر الواسطة"
وقد توفي عن 42 عاماً حيث ولد عام 1469
------------

.

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سنة 1528
=========
.=

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سنة 1529
1529
تاهمسب شاه الأول إبن اسماعيل استرجع بغداد سنة 1529 وأعطاها إلى محمد سلطان خان تكّالو.




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عدد المساهمات : 3574
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/09/2008

الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ) Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: رد: الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ)   الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ) Icon_minitimeالسبت فبراير 23, 2013 8:26 pm

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1520 Apr 6, Raphael (b.1483), [Sanzio], Italian painter (Sistine Madonna), died on his 37th birthday. His work included "The Veiled Lady" and a set of cartoons that were woven into 10 tapestries titled "The Acts of the Apostles" (1544-1557).
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.D7)(www.abcgallery.com/R/raphael/raphaelbio.html)

1520 May 20, Hernando Cortes defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
(HN, 5/20/98)

1520 Jun 15, Pope Leo the Tenth threatened to excommunicate Martin Luther if he did not recant his religious beliefs. Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther by the bull Exsurge.
(AP, 6/15/00)(HT, 6/15/00)

1520 Jun 24, Montezuma, under orders by Cortez to calm his people, was showered with "stones, darts, arrows and sticks" from a jeering crowd.
(ON, 10/00, p.5)

1520 Jun 30, Montezuma II was murdered as Spanish conquistadors fled the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan during the night. Montezuma died from wounds inflicted by his people. Conquistadors under Cortez plundered gold from Aztecs.
(HN, 6/30/01)(ON, 10/00, p.5)(MC, 6/30/02)

1520 Jul 10, The explorer Cortes was driven from Tenochtitlan, Mexico, by Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc, and retreated to Tlaxcala.
(HN, 7/10/98)

1520 Jul 14, Hernando Cortes fought the Aztecs at the Battle of Otumba, Mexico.
(MC, 7/14/02)

1520 Sep 20, Magellan set sail from Spain with five ships and 265 men, on a voyage to find a western passage to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.
(MC, 11/28/01)

1520 Sep 21, Suleiman I (the Magnificent), son of Selim, became the Ottoman sultan in Constantinople. He ruled to 1566. [see Sep 30]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 9/21/98)(Ot, 1993, xvii)

1520 Sep 22, Selim I, Sultan of Turkey (1512-20), died at 53.
(MC, 9/22/01)

1520 Sep 30, Suleiman I succeeded his father Selim I as sultan of Turkey. [see Sep 21]
(MC, 9/30/01)

1520 Oct 7, The 1st public burning of books took place in Louvain, Netherlands.
(MC, 10/7/01)

1520 Oct 15, King Henry VIII of England ordered bowling lanes at Whitehall.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1520 Oct 21, Ferdinand Magellan arrived at Tierra Del Fuego (Argentina-Chile).
(MC, 10/21/01)

1520 Oct 23, King Carlos I (1500-1558) was crowned as German emperor Charles V (1520-1558), a Holy Roman Emperor.
(http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Charles%20V,%20Holy%20Roman%20Emperor)

1520 Nov 4, Danish-Norwegian king Christian II was crowned king of Sweden.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1520 Nov 9, Swedish King Christian II executed 600 nobles.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1520 Nov 28, Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan reached the Pacific Ocean after passing through the South American strait, the straits of Magellan, and entered the “Sea of the South.”
(V.D.-H.K.p.177)(AP, 11/28/97)

1520 Dec 10, Martin Luther publicly burned the papal edict demanding that he recant, or face excommunication.
(AP, 12/10/97)

1520 Dec 18, Magellan struck out into the open sea to the northwest
(V.D.-H.K.p.177)

1520 A 9-piece tapestry set was created for the Holy Roman Empire coronation of Belgium-born Charles V, King of Spain, titled "Los Honores." The set was restored by Belgium in 2000 for the 500th anniversary of Charles’ birth.
(WSJ, 4/11/02, p.AD7)

1520 The funereal monuments of the Medici Chapel were commissioned by Pope Clement VII. They were done primarily by Michelangelo (1475-1564) from 1520 to 1534, being completed by his students after his departure. The four figures—dawn, day, dusk and night—are considered among the sculptor‘s most accomplished work. He left Florence in 1534, hoping to return, but spent his last years in Rome.
(HNQ, 11/15/00)

1520 Joachim Patenier painted one of the earliest industrial pictures showing a blast-furnace.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Jacopo Pontormo made his red chalk body sketches.
(SFC, 2/15/97, p.D6)

1520 The book "Prester John of the Indies" was written. It was translated in 1810. Later Robert Silverberg wrote: "The Realm of Prester John" and John Buchanon wrote "Prester John." In 1952 the French work "Le Pretre Jean" was written.
(SFEC, 12/15/96, p.C5)

1520 In Germany Jacob Fugger “The Rich” established a Roman Catholic housing settlement for the poor in Augsburg in the name of Augsburg’s local St. Ulrich. In return for cheap rent residents agreed to pray for the Fuggers’ souls.
(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A10)
1520 The Jews of Rothenburg, Bavaria, were banished entirely and forevermore.
(NH, 9/96, p.24)

1520 The Anabaptists, Protestants who baptized believers only and not infants, grew as a movement in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Some emigrated to America and established themselves as the Amish of Lancaster, Pa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFC, 7/2/98, p.A7)

1520 King Francis founded the Royal Library of France at Fontainebleu.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Chocolate was brought from Mexico to Spain for the first time. [see 1502]
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 "Many small stars congregated... like to two clouds." (Now known as the Large Magellanic Cloud) Thus one of Ferdinand Magellan’s crew, on the first voyage around the earth, described the southern Pacific sky on a clear night in this year.
(NG, 5/88, p.619)

1520 King Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeated a Swedish army at Lake Asunden and was crowned King of Sweden. He then renounced his offer of amnesty and massacred most of the Swedish leaders.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII met at Dover and agreed to an Anglo-French commercial treaty.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and renamed the South Sea as the Pacific Ocean.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 Scipione del Ferro, Italian mathematician, solved cubic equations for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1520 A smallpox epidemic raged in Vera Cruz, Mexico. The 16th century smallpox epidemic in Mexico and Central America killed about half of the Aztecs.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 1/30/00, Z1 p.2)

1520-1530 The "Shahnameh" (also shah nama, Persian Book of Kings) by Firdawsi was commissioned to be illustrated for Shah Tahmasp by more than a dozen artists. 258 miniatures were made with 750 folios of Farsi text. In 1568 it was given to the Ottoman Sultan.
(WSJ, p. A-18, 10/13/94)

1520-1579 Bayazid Roshan, an Afghan intellectual, lived. He revolted against the power of the Moghul government.
(www.afghan, 5/25/98)

1520/24-1579/80 Giovanni Battista Moroni was a Renaissance portraitist. He worked in Trent and Bergamo and then returned to his hometown of Albino.
(WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A38)

1520-1598 William Cecil. He later became the Lord Treasurer and chief adviser for Queen Elizabeth I, for which he was made Lord Burghley. He built the Burghley House.
(WSJ, 8/24/99, p.A16)

1521 Jan 3, Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.
(NH, 9/96, p.18)(AP, 1/3/98)

1521 March 6, Magellan made landfall at the island of Guam in the Marianas.
(HN, 3/6/98) (V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)

1521 March 9, Magellan sailed west, southwest towards the Philippines.
(V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)

1521 Mar 15, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the Philippine Islands, where he was killed by natives the following month. [see Apr 26]
(PCh, 1992, p.172)(MC, 3/17/02)(AP, 3/16/97)

1521 Apr 7, Inquisitor-general Adrian Boeyens banned Lutheran books.
(MC, 4/7/02)
1521 Apr 7, Ferdinand Magellan landed on Cebu Island, Philippines. Italian chronicler Antonio Pigafetta reported a thriving port with large supplies of rice and gold. In 2003 the island was a booming commercial center with a population of 4 million.
(WSJ, 10/15/03, p.B2A)

1521 Apr 16, Martin Luther arrived at Diet of Worms.
(MC, 4/16/02)

1521 Apr 17, Under the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Martin Luther first appeared before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the Imperial Diet to face charges stemming from his religious writings. The Roman Catholic Church had already excommunicated him on Jan 3, 1521. He was later declared an outlaw by Charles V.
(NH, 9/96, p.18)(HN, 4/17/98)(AP, 4/17/07)

1521 Apr 18, Martin Luther confronted the emperor Charles V in the Diet of Worms and refused to retract his views which led to his excommunication. Cardinal Alexander questioned the Rev Martin Luther.
(HN, 4/18/99)(MC, 4/18/02)

1521 Apr 21, Martin Luther was called before an Imperial Diet in Worms. He was already accused of heresy and excommunicated by the Pope. Here he was absolved of all charges.
(V.D.-H.K.p.163)

1521 Apr 22, French king Francois I declared war on Spain.
(MC, 4/22/02)
1521 Apr 22, Juan de Padilla, Spanish nobleman, communero-rebel, was beheaded.
(MC, 4/22/02)

1521 Apr 23, The Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
(HN, 4/23/99)

1521 Apr 26, Magellan was killed in a fight with natives on Mactan Island. Magellan named the Mariana Islands Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of Thieves), and was killed by natives on Cebu. Juan Sebastian Elcano, Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription Primus circumdisti me: "You were the first to encircle me." Some 50,000 Chamorro people populated the islands. [see Apr 27]
(V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC,11/10/96,Z1p.2)(TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 3/7/99,Z1 p.4)

1521 April 27, Ferdinand Magellan (50), Portuguese explorer, was killed by natives in the Philippines. [see Apr 26]
(AP, 4/27/99)

1521 May 8, Peter Canisius, [Pieter de Hondt/Kanijs], Jesuit, saint, was born.
(MC, 5/8/02)
1521 May 8, Emperor Charles V and the Diet issued the Edict of Worms. It banned Luther’s work and enjoined his detention, but was not able to be enforced.
(NH, 9/96, p.20)

1521 May 20, Ignatius Loyola was seriously wounded by a cannon ball.
(MC, 5/20/02)

1521 May 26, Martin Luther was banned by the Edict of Worms of because of his religious beliefs and writings.
(AP, 5/26/97)

1521 May 28, Willem van Croij (~62), duke of Soria, died.
(MC, 5/28/02)

1521 Aug 13, Spanish conqueror Hernando Cortez conquered the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City) after an 85-day battle. Cuauhtemoc fought against Cortes in Tlatelolco when Moctezuma surrendered. Cortez had an Indian mistress named La Malinche.
(NG, 6/1988, p.763)(AP, 8/13/97)(TL-MB, p.12)(WSJ, 8/13/97, p.A12)(WSJ, 4/24/98, p.A15)

1521 Aug 27, Josquin Des Prez, composer, died.
(MC, 8/27/02)

1521 Aug 31, Spanish conqueror Cortez (1485-1547), having captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, set it on fire. Nearly 100,000 people died in the siege and some 100,000 more died afterwards of smallpox. In 2008 Buddy levy authored “Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stand of the Aztecs.”
(HN, 8/31/98)(WSJ, 7/10/08, p.A13)

1521 Sep 28, Turkish sultan Suleiman I's troops occupied Belgrade.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1521 Oct 11, Pope Leo X titled King Henry VIII of England "Defender of the Faith" in recognition of his writings in support of the Catholic Church. Henry had penned a defense of the seven Catholic Sacraments in response to Martin Luther‘s Protestant reform movement. By 1534, Henry had broken completely with the Catholic Church, and the Pope‘s authority in England was abolished.
(TL-MB, p.12)(HNQ, 8/12/00)(MC, 10/11/01)

1521 Oct 24, Robert Fayrfax, composer, died at 57.
(MC, 10/24/01)

1521 Oct 25, Emperor Charles V banned wooden buildings in Amsterdam.
(MC, 10/25/01)

1521 Nov 19, Battle at Milan: Emperor Charles V's Spanish, German, and papal troops beat France and occupied Milan. An eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(MC, 11/19/01)

1521 Nov 20, Arabs attributed a shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1521 Lorenzo Lotto, Italian artist, painted the "Christ Bidding Farewell to His Mother."
(WSJ, 1/15/98, p.A17)

1521 Suleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 The Chateau de Chenonceaux in the Loire Valley of France was built for the royal tax collector, Thomas Bohier. It took eight years to construct.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 The manufacture of silk cloth was introduced to France. It had been made in Sicily since the 1100s.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 In Puerto Rico the Caparra colony founded by Spanish conquistadores relocated to a barrier island at the entrance of San Juan Bay.
(HT, 4/97, p.28)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 The first running of the bulls was held at Pamplona, Spain. [see 1591]
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)

1521 Francisco de Gordillo, Spanish explorer, sailed up the American Atlantic coast to South Carolina.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1521 Ponce de Leon returned to Key Marco in southwest Florida, where he was again repulsed by the Calusa Indians and died from an arrow wound.
(AM, 11/04, p.49)

1521 Clipperton Island was originally discovered by Ferdinand Magellan in 1521, but was later named after John Clipperton, an English pirate who led a mutiny against William Dampier in 1704. Mexico occupied the island in 1897 and established a military outpost there. In 1930, the Vatican gave the rights to the King of Italy, Viktor Emanuel II, who declared one year later that Clipperton was a part of France. In 1944 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered the navy to occupy the island in one of the most secret US operations of WW II. After the war it was abandoned, and has since only been visited by the French Navy and an occasional scientific or amateur radio expedition. In 1989 Jimmy M. Skaggs authored "Clipperton: A History of the Island the World Forgot."
(NH, 12/96, p.70)(www.qsl.net/clipperton2000/history.html)

1522 Feb 7, Treaty of Brussels: Habsburgers split into Spanish and Austrian Branches.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1522 Mar 9-16, Marten Luther preached his Invocavit.
(MC, 3/9/02)

1522 Apr 29, Emperor Charles V named Frans van Holly inquisitor-gen of Netherlands.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1522 May 25, Emperor Karel I returned to Spain.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1522 Aug 27, Giovanni A. Amadei (75), Amadeo, Italian sculptor, architect, died.
(MC, 8/27/02)

1522 Sep 6, Juan Sebastian Elcano (Del Cano), Magellan’s second in command, returned to Spain with 18 men and one ship, the Vittorio, laden with spices. His coat of arms was augmented in reward with the inscription: Primus circumdisti me: "You were the first to encircle me."18 survivors of the original Magellan expedition completed the circumnavigation of the globe under Sebastian del Cano. Plumes of the bird of paradise from New Guinea were first brought back to Europe. One of the five ships that set out in Ferdinand Magellan's trip around the world made it back to Spain. Only 15 of the original 265 men that set out survived. Magellan was killed by natives in the Philippines.
(V.D.-H.K.p.177-178)(SFEC, 11/10/96, zone 1 p.2)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(NH, 9/96, p.8)(HN, 9/6/98)

1522 Sep 8, Spanish navigator Juan de Elcano returned to Spain. He completed the 1st circumnavigation of globe, expedition begun under Ferdinand Magellan. [see Sep 6]
(MC, 9/8/01)

1522 Oct 15, Emperor Charles named Hernan Cortes governor of Mexico.
(MC, 10/15/01)

1522 Dosso Dossi painted "Allegory of Music."
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1522 Martin Luther completed his translation of the New Testament into German and returned to Wittenberg. His supporter, Ulrich Zwingli, condemned Lenten fasting and celibacy. Luther also published his Christmas Postils as preaching models for other pastors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 12/21/01, p.W15)

1522 A Bible was printed in Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Adrian VI was elected Pope. He was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 In 2007 The book "Beyond Capricorn" said a 16th century maritime map in a Los Angeles library vault, which accurately marks geographical sites along Australia's east coast in Portuguese, proves that Portuguese seafarer Christopher de Mendonca lead a fleet of four ships into Botany Bay in this year.
(Reuters, 3/21/07)

1522 England declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emp. Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Suleiman I captured Rhodes from the Knights Hospitallers of St. John. The knights surrendered after a 6-month siege. In 1530 the knights were resettled on Malta by Charles V.
(WSJ, 7/21/08, p.A11)

1522 Albrecht Durer, German artist and engraver, designed a flying machine for use in war.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Guatemala was conquered by Spanish armies.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 A massive slave rebellion, the first of dozens, was crushed in Hispaniola.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Martin Cortes (d.1569), son of Hernando Cortes, was born in Mexico to an Amerindian woman named Malinche. Cortes also named a 3rd son Martin, who was born in Spain. Both brothers were arrested in 1566 for purportedly fomenting a rebellion against the Spanish crown.
(SSFC, 7/11/04, p.M3)

1522 The Portuguese crown began administering Sao Tome.
(AP, 7/18/03)

1522 Pascual de Andagoya, Spanish explorer, became the first European to set foot in Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522 Gustavus Vasa became administrator of Sweden and pledged to free his country from Danish control.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1522-1524 Titian painted "Bacchanal of the Andrians" during this period.
(WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)

1523 Jun 6, [Gustav] Gustavus Vasa was elected Gustavus I of Sweden.
(HFA, '96, p.32)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(HN, 6/6/98)

1523 Jul 1, Hendrik Voes, Flemish priest, church reformer, was burned at stake along with John of Esschen, Flemish priest, church reformer.
(MC, 7/1/02)

1523 Oct 27, English troops occupied Montalidier, France.
(MC, 10/27/01)

1523 Nov 30, Amsterdam banned the assembly of heretics.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1523 Titian painted "Bacchus and Ariadne," a heroic mythological composition for Alfonso d’Este, Duke of Ferrara. It is now at the London National Gallery.
(TL-MB, p.12)(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T8)

1523 Hans Holbein completed the first of several portraits of Erasmus in Basel. He also began the design of 51 plates on the "Dance of Death," which reflected ideas of the Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WSJ, 6/24/97, p.A20)

1523 Hans Judenkonig published in Vienna the first manual of lute playing.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Anthony Fitzherbert published the "Book of Husbandry," the first English manual of agriculture.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 Pope Adrian VI died and was succeeded by Pope Clement VII, nephew of Lorenzo de’ Medici. Adrian VI was the last non-Italian Pope until 1978 when Cardinal Wojtyla, Archbishop of Cracow, became Pope Paul II. Clement was pope until 1534.
(WUD, 1994, p.1691)(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(WUD, 1994, p.276)

1523 Sugar was grown in Cuba for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(SFEC, 11/24/96, p.A3)

1523 Christian II was deposed in Denmark after a civil war and was exiled. His uncle became King Frederick I of Denmark and Norway.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent successfully overcame the Knights Hospitaller, Order of St. John, from their position on the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea. The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, offered the Knights the Isle of Malta. In exchange for a perpetual lease the Knights undertook to send the emperor a falcon (made famous in the mystery novel, The Maltese Falcon, and the movie of the same name) once every year as a token of their fealty. They remained there until the time of Napoleon, and became known as the Knights of Malta.
(WSJ, 12/30/94, A-6, Review of The Knights of Malta by H.J.A. Sire)

1523 Portuguese settlers were expelled from China.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523 The first marine insurance policies were issued in Florence.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1523-1524 Dosso Dossi painted "Jupiter, Mercury and Virtue."
(WSJ, 1/20/98, p.A20)

1524 Mar 19, Giovanni de Verrazano of France sighted land around area of Carolinas.
(MC, 3/19/02)

1524 Apr 17, Giovanni da Verrazano, Florentine navigator, reached present-day New York Harbor. He explored from Cape Fear to Newfoundland and discovered New York Bay and the Hudson River. He was later eaten by natives.
(TL-MB, p.12)(HN, 4/17/98)(SFEM, 11/15/98, p.26)(AP, 4/17/08)

1524 Apr 19, Pope Clemens VII fired the Netherlands inquisitor-general French Van de Holly.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1524 cApr, The Peasant’s War, in which Protestants fought against Catholics and demanded an end to feudal services and oppression by the landed gentry, broke out in Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Jul 26, James I became king of Scotland at age 12.
(MC, 7/26/02)

1524 Aug 19, Emperor Charles V's troops besieged Marseille.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1524 Nov 14, Pizarro began his 1st great expedition, near Colombia.
(MC, 11/14/01)

1524 Dec 11, Henry Van Zutphen, Dutch Protestant martyr, was burned at stake.
(MC, 12/11/01)

1524 Dec 24, Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama (~55), who had discovered a sea route around Africa to India, died in Cochin, India. He had served as Viceroy in India. Gama served under the patronage of Dom Manoel and at one time burned alive 380 men, women and children.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)(AP, 12/24/97)(MC, 12/24/01)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.M3)

1524 Albrecht Durer drafted a dozen drawings of the same face on a grid. Each grid was transformed as if it were printed on a rubber graph which was then bent and twisted to distort the normal proportions. Computerized morphing only came c1990.
(MT, 10/94, p.9)

1524 Peter Bennewitz, German prof. of mathematics, produced the first textbook on theoretical geography: "Cosmographia."
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Jan Wynken de Worde printed Robert Wakefield’s "Oration" using Italic type for the first time in English typography.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Martin Luther and Johann Walther produced jointly a German hymnal: "Geistliche Lieder."
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Aden became a tributary of Portugal.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Hans Holbein the Elder (b. c1460), German-born artist, died in Eisenheim.
(www.abcgallery.com/H/holbein/fholbeinbio.html)

1524 Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Cortez, marched into the Guatemalan highlands. He played the local Indian tribes against one another and won a major battle fought at a river in western Guatemala against warriors of the Quiche tribe led by Tecun Uman.
(NG, 6/1988, p.790)

1524 Chevalier Bayard, commander of French forces in Lombardy, was killed and the French were driven out.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Hernandez de Cordoba founded Granada, Nicaragua. The city, also known as La Gran Sultana (The Grand Sultan), is the oldest city in Central America.
(SSFC, 4/10/05, p.F4)

1524 Denmark confirmed Swedish independence under Gustavus Vasa in the Treaty of Malmo.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524 Shah Ismail, ruler of Persia, died.
(www.britannica.com/eb/article-230075)

1524 Ulrich Zwingli abolished the Catholic mass in Zurich.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.12)

1524-1580 Luis Camoes, Portuguese poet. He fought in colonial battles in Morocco and India and lost one eye. He was arrested in a street brawl in Lisbon and left for India. He traveled to Macao and Mozambique after which he published "Os Lusiadas" (The Lusiads, 1572), a poem that glorified Vasco da Gama and the history of Portugal. www.lusaweb.com
(SFC, 6/4/99, p.D6)(SSFC, 3/10/02, p.M3)

1524-1585 Pierre de Ronsard, established the use of the vernacular in French verse.
(V.D.-H.K.p.143)

1524-1608 Giambologna, a sculptor from Florence.
(WSJ, 2/1/96, p.A-16)


===========================
http://timelines.ws/1525_1549.HTML
Timeline 1525-1549

Return to home Find more history information and social studies help! Find out how you can earn an online university degree in history! Find online lesson plans and more information on government and world history. 1525 Feb 24, In the first of the Franco-Habsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy.
(HN, 2/24/99)

1525 Feb 25, French King Francis I was defeated and captured by Imperial forces at Pavia.
(HN, 2/25/98)

1525 Mar 20, The Paris parliament began the pursuit of Protestants (Papists proudly participated).
(MC, 3/20/02)

1525 Apr 8, Albert von Brandenburg, the leader of the Teutonic Order, assumed the title "Duke of Prussia" and passed the first laws of the Protestant church, making Prussia a Protestant state.
(HN, 4/8/99)

1525 May 7, The German peasants' revolt was crushed by the ruling class and church.
(HN, 5/7/99)

1525 May 10, Church reformer John Pistorius was caught in the Hague.
(MC, 5/10/02)

1525 May 14, A German army under Philip of Hesse surrounded and slaughtered 5,000 ending a peasant revolt led by Thomas Muntzer.
(MC, 5/15/02)(PCh, 1992, p.173)

1525 May 17, Battle at Zabern: duke of Lutherans beat rebels.
(MC, 5/17/02)

1525 May 27, Thomas Muntzer (28), German vicar, Boer leader, head of the German peasant revolt was beheaded. Some 150,000 peasants died in the uprising.
(PCh, 1992, p.173)(MC, 5/27/02)

1525 Jul 19, The Catholic princes of Germany formed the Dessau League to fight against the Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/19/98)

1525 Aug 21, Estavao Gomes returned to Portugal after failing to find a clear waterway to Asia.
(HN, 8/21/98)

1525 Sep 15, Jan de Bakker (26), Roman Catholic priest also known under the name Pistorius, was burned during the Reformation in the Netherlands.
(http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/p/pistorius_joh.shtml)

1525 Dec 30, Jacob Fugger (66), German banker and merchant, died.
(MC, 12/30/01)

1525 Michelangelo worked on the Medici chapel.
(NH, 9/96, p.67)

c1525 Joos van Cleve, Belgian painter, painted "St. John the Evangelist on Patmos."
(MT, Spg. ‘97, p.20)

1525 Spanish architects established the style of "Plateresque," as exemplified by the gateway of the Univ. of Salamanca.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Cardinal Wolsey presented Hampton Court Palace to Henry VIII.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)
1525 The bishop of London recruited Augustine Packington as an agent in Antwerp to buy up all copies of Tyndale’s translation of the New Testament. Packington, a supporter of Tyndale, sent copies to London, where they were burned and passed payments on to Tyndale, who used the money for a new version of his work.
(www.tyndale.org/TSJ/17/cooper.html)(Econ, 12/20/08, p.103)

1525 Thomas Munzer, a German Anabaptist, set up a communistic theocracy at Mulhausen, Germany.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 William Tyndale (1494-1536), English religious scholar, completed his translation of the New Testament in Hamburg, Germany. It was published in Worms in Spring 1526, and then smuggled to England.
(ON, 11/04, p.2)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Tyndale)

1525 The Capuchin order of friars was founded in Italy. They become among the most effective Catholic preachers and missionaries in the Counter-Reformation.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 The Mennonites, a Protestant branch of the Anabaptists, were established in Zurich, Switz.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Martin Luther married Katherine von Bora, a former nun, "to spite the devil."
(SFC, 2/28/96, D-10)(SFC, 3/16/02, p.A3)

1525 In India Babur, a warrior with an Islamic Persian background, invaded Hindu India. He took Delhi and Agra and made Agra his capital.
(HT, 4/97, p.22)

1525 Andrea della Robbia (b.1435), Italian artist, died. He was the nephew and pupil of Luca della Robbia (1400-1482).
(SFC, 11/23/05, p.G2)

1525 In Rome public street cleaners were employed and paid through a tax on artisans and tradesmen.
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)

1525 Turkey and Hungary signed a seven year truce.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Charles V led the German and Spanish forces over the French and Swiss at the Battle of Pavia and became master of Italy. Francis I was captured and taken to Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 Thousands of German peasants were slaughtered.
(NH, 9/96, p.67)

1525 Luther wrote his tract: "Against the Murderous and Thieving Hordes of Peasants."
(NH, 9/96, p.21)

1525 Albrecht Durer, German engraver, compiled the first German manual on geometry.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 City officials tried to control the street vendors in Mexico City.
(SFC, 9/7/96, p.A19)

1525 Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador, sailed from Panama to explore Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1525 The Spanish made initial contact with the Incas.
(SFC, 3/19/02, p.A2)

1526 Jan 14, Francis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signed the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.
(HN, 1/14/99)

1526 Feb 27, Saxony and Hesse formed the League of Gotha, a league of Protestant princes.
(MC, 2/27/02)

1526 Mar 26, King François I returned Spanish captivity to France.
(SS, 3/26/02)

1526 Apr 21, Mongol Emperor Zahir-ud-din Babur annihilated Indian Army of Ibrahim Lodi at the Battle of Panipat. Babar, King of Kabul, established in this year the Mughal dynasty at Delhi.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(SFEC, 5/21/00, p.T8)(WSJ, 3/31/07, p.P10)

1526 Jul 6, King Afonso of Kongo (1509-1542) sent a letter of complaint to Portugal regarding the impact of slave trade in his country.
(www.millersville.edu/~winthrop/Thornton.html)

1526 Jul 26, The Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon and his colonists left Santo Domingo in the Caribbean for Florida.
(HN, 7/26/98)

1526 Oct 18, Lucas Vazquez de Ayllp, Spanish colonialist who settled in SC, died.
(MC, 10/18/01)

1526 Nov 9, Jews were expelled from Pressburg, Hungary, by Maria of Hapsburg.
(MC, 11/9/01)

1526 Nov, The 1st American slave revolt occurred in SC at the Spanish settlement of San Miguel de Gualdape near the mouth of the Pee Dee River in South Carolina.
(http://whgbetc.com/mind/slave_revolts_2.html)

1526 Albrecht Durer painted the "Four Apostles," his last great religious painting and presented it to the city of Nuremberg.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 Lucas Cranach the elder (1472-1553) painted the "Adam and Eve," typical of the artist’s Gothic style as opposed to the "decadent" Italian style.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WUD, 1994, p.339)

1526 William Tyndale published the first complete version of the New Testament in English at Worms, Germany. "Tyndale was the first translator of the biblical texts from their original Greek and Hebrew into English."
(WSJ, 12/22/94, A-20)(WSJ, 11/19/96, p.A20)

1526 John Taverner, organist and composer, was appointed the Master of Choristers at Oxford Univ.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 The 1st Africans to the US arrived at a Spanish settlement South Carolina.
(www.inmotionaame.org/timeline.cfm?bhcp=1)

1526 The Teutonic Knights, a German military and religious order of knights and priests, broke away from the Catholic Church to become Lutherans.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 Pope Clement VII formed the League of Cognac against Emp. Charles V.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 The slave trade escalated to the point where the Portuguese bribed officials to revolt and provided goods and guns to any chief who would supply slaves. King Affonso wrote to King John of Portugal asking that the Portuguese ban the slave trade in Kongo. Numerous letters were sent but King John did nothing.
(ATC, p.152)

1526 Ferdinand of Austria was elected King of Bohemia and inaugurated the Austro-Hungarian state.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1526 Zhu Duan (b.1464), Chinese artist, died. His work included the hanging scroll “Looking at a Misty River at Dusk.”
(http://wwar.com/masters/z/zhu_duan.html)(SFC, 6/28/08, p.E1)

1526 Francis I of France and Emp. Charles V signed the Peace of Madrid wherein Francis renounced claims to much Italian territory.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 In Italy the Beretta family made crossbows. With advancing technology the family launched into firearms (1550).
(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R42)(Econ, 11/18/06, p.64)

1526 Turkish forces of Suleiman I defeated the Hungarian forces and killed Hungarian King Louis II at the Battle of Mohacs.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526 Peace was concluded between Poland and Russia.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1526-1712 In northern India the Mughal Dynasty was the last great dynasty to rule.
(Hem., 2/97, p.55)

1527 Mar 16, The Emperor Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Kanvaha, removing the main Hindu rivals in Northern India.
(HN, 3/16/99)

1527 Apr 30, Henry VIII and King Francis of France signed the treaty of Westminster.
(HN, 4/30/98)

1527 May 6, German and Spanish troops under Charles V began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance. Libraries were destroyed, Pope Clement VII was captured and thousands were killed. 147 of 189 of the Pope’s Swiss guard were killed.
(HN, 5/6/02)(PCh, 1992, p.174)(WSJ, 4/14/06, p.W5)

1527 May 16, Florence expelled the Medici nephews of the Pope and reverted to a republic..
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 5/16/02)

1527 May 21, Philip II (d.1598), king of Spain and Portugal (1556-98), was born. He invaded England and roasted heretics. He collected a fifth of all the wealth generated from the mines and trade in the Americas. He invested heavily into his military and lost it all with the defeat of the Armada in 1588. His debt at his death amounted to 85 million ducats, or 300 tons of gold.
(HN, 5/21/98)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)(MC, 5/21/02)

1527 May 30, The University of Marburg was founded. It is the oldest Protestant University in Germany.
(HFA, '96, p.30)(AHD, p.797)(HN, 5/30/98)

1527 Jun 21, Nicolo Machiavelli (b.1469), Florentine statesman, author (The Prince), died. “When the effect is good... it will always excuse the deed.”
(WSJ, 5/21/96, p.A-16)(WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)(www.online-literature.com/machiavelli/)

1527 Jun 24, Gustaaf I began Reformation in Sweden, taking RC possessions.
(MC, 6/24/02)

1527 Nov 18, Luca Cambiaso, Italian painter and sculptor, was born.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1527 Nov 20, Wendelmoet "Weyntjen" Claesdochter, became the 1st Dutch woman to be burned as heretic.
(MC, 11/20/01)

1527 Dec 6, Pope Clemens VII fled to Orvieto.
(MC, 12/6/01)

1527 Adrian Willaert, Flemish composer, was made maestro di capella at St. Mark’s, in Venice.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Henry VIII appealed to the Pope for permission to divorce Catherine of Aragon.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Croatia formed a state union with Austria.
(WSJ, 7/14/99, p.A23)

1527 Giuseppe Arcimboldi (d.1593), Italian painter [Arcimboldo], was born.
(WUD, 1994, p.78)(WSJ, 7/10/97, p.A13)

1527 Muslim Somali Chief, Ahmed Gran, used firearms against the Ethiopians for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish soldier, was appointed 2nd in command under Panfilo de Narvaez (47), to explore the recently discovered land of Florida.
(ON, 10/03, p.1)

1527 Spanish mercenaries paid by Charles V sacked Rome and left 4,000 dead. Some see this event as marking the close of the Renaissance.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Theophrastus von Hohenheim established chemotherapy and the modern school of medical thinking at the Univ. of Basel in Switzerland.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527 Hernando Cortez and his conquistadores completed the conquest of New Spain. They brought back to Spain tomatoes, avocados, papayas, and vanilla.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1527-1528 Henry VIII imprisoned Pope Clement VII for disobedience. It was to Clement that Henry appealed for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which had been granted under special dispensation in the first place.
(V.D.-H.K.p.163)

1528 Jan 22, England & France declared war on Emperor Charles V of Spain. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(MC, 1/22/02)

1528 Apr 6, Albrecht Durer (b.1471), German painter, graphic artist, died in Germany.
(SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)(MC, 4/6/02)

1528 Apr 14, A Spanish expedition, led by Panfilo de Narvaez, arrived at the west coast of Florida with 400 soldiers and 42 horses.
(ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528 May 1, The Spanish Narvaez expedition began an inland march to Florida with some 300 men and 40 horses.
(ON, 10/03, p.1)

1528 Jul 30, The Spanish Narvaez expedition captured the Indian town of Aute (Florida).
(ON, 10/03, p.2)

1528 Sep 28, A Spanish fleet sank in Florida hurricane; 380 died.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1528 Nov 2, The Spanish Narvaez expedition, having traveled some 700 miles toward eastern Texas, encountered a massive storm and their 5 barges separated.
(ON, 10/03, p.2)

1528 Nov 6, A Spanish barge under Don Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca landed in East Texas. The survivors of 2 barges spent the winter on an island they named Isla de Malhado, "The Island of Misfortune." By the spring of 1529 there were 15 castaways left and half the native population was dead from disease.
(ON, 10/03, p.3)

1528 Nov 30, Great Wierd, Dutch Gelderland army commander, was beheaded.
(MC, 11/30/01)

1528 Hans Holbein painted "The Artist’s Family." After meeting Sir Thomas More in England, he returned temporarily to Basel.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Paracelsus (Theophrastus von Hohenheim), a Swiss physician and alchemist, wrote the first manual of surgery, "Die Kleine Chirurgia." (See Paracelsus in 1537) His middle name was Bombastus.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HC, 1/9/98)

1528 Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529), Italian diplomat and courtier, published "Il Libro del Cortegiano" (The Courtier), an exhaustive study of etiquette and court life that was read and copied throughout Europe. In 1561 Sir Thomas Hoby provided an English translation.
(WSJ, 5/28/04, p.W3)(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1528 In Mexico the fortress of San Juan de Ulua was built on a coral reef in Vera Cruz. It was later estimated that half-million slaves died in the process.
(SFEC, 5/17/98, p.T12)

1528 The Scottish Reformation began.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Cardinal Wolsey dissolved 22 religious houses and used the money for the founding of several colleges.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Jacob Hutter (d.1536), Anabaptist evangelist from South Tyrol, founded a "community of love," whose members shared everything. They settled in Moravia due to the religious tolerance there.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jakob_Hutter)

1528 Wheat was introduced into New Spain.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Hernando Cortes was recalled to Spain and he brought with him haricot beans.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 England established its first colony in the New World at St. Johns, Newfoundland.
(SFEC, 4/25/99, Z1 p.8)

1528 Charles V granted to the Welser family, Augsburg merchants, rights to colonize most of north-eastern South America.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Philip Melanchthon, Protestant reformer, proposed German educational reforms.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528 Babar the Great ordered a large mosque built in Ayodha, 2 years after he established the Mogul Empire in India. The Babri Mosques was destroyed by a Hindu mob in 1992.
(AM, 7/04, p.49)

1528 Typhus swept through Italy and killed tens of thousands.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1528-1530 Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci) painted "Portrait of a Halberdier."
(WSJ, 4/9/99, p.W16)

1528-1588 Paolo Cagliari Veronese, Venetian painter. He was hauled before the Inquisition in1573 and accused of painting profanities.
(WUD, 1994, p.1588)(TL-MB, 1988, p.22)
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عدد المساهمات : 3574
تاريخ التسجيل : 25/09/2008

الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ) Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: the year 1529   الفترة (1520-1529 م) أو (926-936هـ) Icon_minitimeالسبت فبراير 23, 2013 8:27 pm

[/url]
16-4-1529

Louis de Berquin, French humanist, reformer, heretic, was burned at stake.
(MC, 4/16/02)
------------------
19-4-1529
2nd Parliament of Speyer banned Lutheranism. At the Diet of Speyer the Lutheran minority protested against restrictions on their teachings and were called "Protestant" for the first time.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speyer)
------------------
22-4-1529
1529 Apr 22, Spain and Portugal divided the eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa
(HN, 4/22/98)
-----------------
6-5-1529
Babur defeated the Afghan Chiefs in the Battle of Ghagra, India
(HN, 5/6/98)

-------------------

1529 May 27

30 Jews of Posing, Hungary, charged with blood ritual, were burned at stake.
(MC, 5/27/02)


-------------------
1529 Jun 9, Zurich declared war on Catholic cantons.
(MC, 6/9/02)

1529 Jun 21, John Skelton (69), English poet, died.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1529 Jul 26, Francisco Pizarro was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to "discover and conquer" Peru.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)(HN, 7/26/98)

1529 Sep 8, The Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-entered Buda and established John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
(HN, 9/8/98)

1529 Oct 1-3, Martin Luther met with Huldrych Zwingli.
(MC, 10/1/01)

1529 Oct 15, Ottoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
(WSJ, 3/27/96, p.A-16)(TL-MB, 1988, p.13) (HN, 10/15/98)

1529 Oct 17, Henry VIII removed Cardinal Thomas Wolsey as Lord Chancellor for failing to secure an annulment of his marriage.
(HN, 10/17/98)(PCh, 1992ed, p.176)

1529 Oct 21, Henry VIII of England was named Defender of the Faith by the Pope after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
(HN, 10/21/98)

1529 Oct 26, Thomas More was appointed English Lord Chancellor.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1529 Nov 3, The first Reformation Parliament for five years opened in London, England and the Commons put forward bills against abuses amongst the clergy and in the church courts.
(HN, 11/3/99)(MC, 11/3/01)

1529 Nov 4, Thomas Wolsey, English Lord Chancellor and cardinal, was arrested.
(MC, 11/4/01)

1529 Bernardino Luini, a pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, completed his fresco of the Passion and Crucifixion at the Santa Maria Degli Angioli church in Lugano, Switzerland.
(SFEC, 6/14/98, p.T4)

1529 Luther published two hymns: "Away in a Manger" and "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God."
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Civil war commenced between Catholic and the Reformed cantons in Switzerland. The Catholics were ultimately defeated.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Emp. Charles V ceded the Spanish rights in the Spice Islands to the Portuguese.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 The Turks at Buda planted paprika from the New World.
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Maize from America, grown in Turkey, was introduced to England as "turkey corn."
(TL-MB, 1988, p.13)

1529 Baldassare Castiglione (b.1478), Italian diplomat, courtier and author of "Il Libro del Cortegiano" (The Courtier), died while on a papal mission to Toledo.
(WSJ, 1/14/07, p.P12)

1529-1608 Giambologna, a Florentine sculptor. A biography was written by Baldinucci.
(WSJ, 1/8/99, p.C13)
====================
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