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 الفترة (1500-1509 م) أو (905-915هـ)

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الفترة (1500-1509 م) أو (905-915هـ) Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: الفترة (1500-1509 م) أو (905-915هـ)   الفترة (1500-1509 م) أو (905-915هـ) Icon_minitimeالسبت فبراير 23, 2013 8:24 pm


الفترة (1500-1509 م) أو (905-915هـ)

سنة 1500
► في 10-8-1500
اكتشاف الرحالة دييجو دياز لجزيرة مدغشقر
- Diego Diaz discovers Madagascar
-------------
إسماعيل يهزم قبائل ( اق قويونلو) ويجلس علي العرش في ( تبريز)
----------------
بداية الدولة الصفوية في إيران
شاه إيران =في الفترة (1501-1524) = الشاه اسماعيل الأول
---------------------
عام 1500م
الصدام بين البنادقة والعثمانيين
تفاصيل:
في شتاء سنة905 هـ تحرشت البندقية بتركيا ثانيا فأرسلت أسطولها فاستولى على جزيرة كفالونيا وهاجموا ميناء بريفيزة وأحرقوا قسماً من السفن العثمانية التي كانت راسية بها
ولما علم السلطان أرسل في سنة 906هـ الإسطول العثماني بحراً وأمرها بحصار ( قلعة متون ) ونهض هو بجيش كبير براً من أدرنة إلى هذه القلعة وعند وصول الأسطول التركي إليها تصدي له ( الأميرال تراويسانو) بأساطيل البنادقة ودار قتال شديد انتهي بهزيمة الأميرال تراويسانو وخسارته الكثير من سفنه واستولي الأسطول العثماني على سفينتين عظيمتين من سفن البنادقة واستولى العثمانيون أيضاً على قلعتي متون وقرون CORON
ثم دخل السلطان مورة بجيوشه ، ولما رأى الأميرال تراويسانو ذلك قام فهجم على ( ميناء نافارين ) ويكتبه البعض : (ميناناوارين ) واستولى الأميرال علي الميناء
فأسرع جزء من الأسطول العثماني بقيادة (كمال رئيس ) ومعه ثلاثين سفينة عثمانية وشن على أسطول البندقية هجمة ناجحة في الميناء المذكور استولى على ثمان سفن من أسطول البنادقة المذكور واسترد منهم القلعة وسحق ذلك الأسطول
فعاد الأميرال تراويسانو بأسطول البنادقة منهزماً .

وللانتقام تحالفت البندقية مع إسبانيا على مهاجمة الترك ففشن أسطولها الحربي هجمة ناجحة علي ( جزيرة كفالونيك ) واستولي على قلعتها فأرسل الترك أسطولهم فاسترد (قلعة مديلي )
--------------------
1500م
► بداية فترة يسميها المسيحيون الغربيون بعصرالإصلاح الديني الذي شهد لديهم تحجيم دور الكنيسة وتَعاظُم الاكتشافات العلمية.
------------------------
1500
► بداية العهد الذهبي ل إسبانيا
استمر 100 عام كانت خلالها هي القوة الأوربية الاستعمارية العظمى
------------------------
1500
ـ البرتغال تحتل البرازيل.
----------------
1500
سلطان مصر = جانبلاط
تعقيب : اغتيل سنة 1501
###############################
سنة 1501
سلطان مصر لمدة 100 يوم = طومان باي
سلطان مصر في الفترة (1501-1516) = الأشرف قانصوه الغوري
فقد إختار المماليك ورجال الشريعة السلطان قنصوه الغوري ليكون سلطانا علي مصر والشام ويلاد الحجاز .
بابراي (النمر) يستولي علي أفغانستان
وقد ظلت أفغانستان تابعة لدولة المغول في الهند حتي أواخر حكم جهانكير
► مصر : ثورة أهالي محافظة الشرقية
► بداية 907هـ هي 16-7-1501م


#############################
سنة 1502
► في 13-6-1502
كريستوف كولومبوس يكتشف جزيرة مارتنيك من جزر الهند الغربية
-------------
► في 7-8-1502
قيام القوات الفرنسية بطرد قوات اسبانيا من كانوسيا بجنوب ايطاليا.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

► في 8-8-1502
زواج (جاكوب الرابع) ملك سكوتلاند من (مارجريتا تيودور)
---------------
► بداية 908هـ هي 6-7-1502م
---------------
► في عام 908هـ
الشاه إسماعيل يتوجه بالجيش إلي مراد فيلتقي به في معركة قرب ( همذان) ويهزمه ويرغمه علي الفرار إلي بغداد
############################
سنة 1503
==========
.► في مصر : إنشاء وكالة الغوري
وتضم عدداً من الحواصل 28 مسكناً من طابقين بالاضافة الي الفناء الذي كان يجتمع به التجار لعقد الصفقات واسطبل للجمال

############################
سنة 1504
==========
قيام مملكة الفونج الإسلامية في السودان كثمرة تحالف بين الفونج بقيادة زعيمهم عمارة دنقس ، والعبدلاب بقيادة زعيمهم عبدالله جماع
تفاصيل : نشأت مملكة الفونج علي حدود مملكتي المقرة وعلوة في الفترة(1504- 1821م)، امتدت مملكة الفونج من الشلال الثالث الي اقصي جبال فازوغلي شمالا وجنوبا من سواكن علي البحر الأحمر الي النيل الابيض شرقا وغربا، وكان الحد بين سنار ومشيخة قري (الحلفايا) مدينة اربجي بقرب المسلمية والتنظيم الاداري من اربجي فصاعدا جنوبا كان تابعا لملوك الفونج رأسا لادخل لمشايخ قري فيه ومنها شمالا الي الشلال الثالث كان تابعا لادارة مشيخة قري أو العبدلاب تحت سيادة ملوك الفونج.
وكانت المملكة منقسمة الي عدة ممالك ومشيخات من سود ونوبة وحضر وبادية، وكان كل ملك أو شيخ يدفع الجزية لملك سنار ، الا أن له نوعا من الاستقلال والممالك هي: مشيخة خشم البحر، مملكة فازوغلي، مشيخة الحمدة، مملكة بني عامر، مملكة الحلنقة. أما الممالك والمشيخات التي خضعت للفونج بواسطة العبدلاب هي: مشيخة الشنابلة، مملكة الجموعية، مملكة الجعليين، مملكة الميرفاب، مملكة الرباطاب، مملكة الشايقية، مملكة الدفار، مملكة الخندق، مملكة الخناق، مملكة ارقو.
اما البلاد الواقعة بين الشلال الثالث والشلال الأول فقد كانت بيد الكشاف الأتراك
أصل الفونج:اختلف المؤرخون حول أصل وموطن الفونج، وكل له حيثياته، وأرجعوا أصل وموطن الفونج الي الآتي:1- بلاد الحبشة وبلاد برنو. 2- منطقة الشلك علي النيل الأبيض.3- أصل عربي يعود الي بني أمية(كما يقول النسابة السودانيين)
أصل العبدلاب: عربي صريح ويري جيمس بروس أنهم من قريش ويروي أنهم من الأشراف، كما ورد في مخطوطة كاتب الشونة(مخطوط باريس) أن عبد الله القريناتي من عربان القواسمة، وهناك رواية الشيخ عبد الدافع التي ترجع القواسمة الي جهينة وتنسب أقدم مخطوطة عبدلابية عبد الله القريني الي بطن من قبيلة رفاعة من جهة امه والي الأشراف الحسينيين
-------------------------
► الأوزبك يطردون بابر من فرغانة
► في 26-11-1504
موت إيزابيللا ملكة أسبانيا ودفنت بغرناطة في دير سان فرنسيسكو القائم فوق هضبة الحمراء
► معركة بالهند بين مصر والبرتغال
الأسطول البرتغالي هاجم الأسطول المصري القادم لقتال البرتغاليين الذين سيطروا علي الهند وأعاقوا تجارة الهند مع مصر
تحطم الأسطول المصري وظهوره بصورة من الضعف شجعت البرتغاليين بعد المعركة علي احتلال اندونيسيا والفلبين
############################
سنة 1505
=========
.► تكوين أول كتيبة مسلحة بالبنادق في تاريخ مصر بأمر من السلطان الغوري
بعدما ثبت من نجاح البرتغاليين في السيطرة علي الهند باستعمالهم البنادق بدلاً من السيوف والحراب والسهام
= قيصر روسييا في الفترة (1505-1533) = فاسيلي الثالث
= وفاة السلطان ( حسين بايقرا ) آخر سلاطين الدولة التيمورية في إيران
= احتل الأسبان ميناء المرسي الكبير ، وهو من أهم موانئ دولة الجزائر

############################
سنة 1506
=========
في 915هـ/1506م:
البرتغال تدفع بالقائد البرتغالي ( الفونسودي البوكيرك ) نحو الخليج
فاستولى في البداية على جزر ظفار على سواحل البحر العربي ثم استولى على قلهات ووجه مقاومة عنيفة من أهلها إلاّ أن البرتغاليين استطاعوا اقتحام الميناء ودخول للمدينة.
وفي مسقط ظهر الأستعمار البرتغالي بأنه من أسوأ أنواع الاستعمار بقسوته وعنفه تجاه الشعوب في الدول التي احتلها فكانوا ينهبون المن ويدمرون الموانئ ويحرقون السفن ويهدمون المساجد والمعابد ويجدعون الأنوف والآذان ويفتكون بالنساء والأطفال.
اثيوبيا : هجمات القبائل المسلمة بقيادة الامام أحمد حمدان ( أحمد جوري ) علي مملكة اثيوبيا مما أدي لسقوطها

############################
سنة 1507
=========
عام 1507
بعدما فتك البرتغاليون بأهل مسقط وعصفوا بالمدينة حرقاً ونهباً وقتلاً اتجه البوكيرك إلى مدينة صحار 913هـ/1507م فاحتلها وقام بفرض ضريبة عليها
وكانت قبل ذلك تدفعها لمملكة هرمز وبذلك استطاع البرتغاليون السيطرة على مدخل الخليج العربي
► اتجه البرتغاليون بعد ذلك إلى هرمز, وكان أهل هرمز قد استعدوا للقتال, ولكن قبل أن يبدأ الهجوم على هرمز وقعت حركة تمرد بين ملاحي البوكيرك فقد تعب الجنود من المعارك السابقة والتي جاءت متلاحقة بالإضافة إلى أنهم أرادوا التمتع بالثروات الكبيرة التي جمعوها من احتلالهم لبعض أجزاء الهند والتي استولوا عليها من معاركهم في مسقط وصحار خاصة ومعظمهم خرجوا من البرتغال أملاً في البحث عن الثروة.
ولكي يكسب البوكيرك الوقت فقد بدأ بالتفاوض مع ملك هرمز ووزيره خواجة عطار وساعدته عملية التفاوض على أن يختبر قوة هرمز من ناحية وناحية أخرى أتاحت له الوقت اللازم للقضاء على التمرد بين جنوده وتنظيم قواته.

وعندما وصلت المفاوضات بعد ذلك إلى طريق مسدود قام بشن هجوم بحري عنيف أسفر عن هزيمة هرمز 913هـ/1507م ووقـّعت اتفاقية بين الجانبين فرضت بمقتضاها على هرمز غرامة حريبة وضريبة سنوية تدفعها للرتغاليين بالاضافة إلى إعفاء البضائع البرتغالية من أي رسوم جمركية. وكان هذا هو أول اخضاع لهرمز من قبل البرتغاليين.

.

############################
سنة 1508
=========
.1508
► اتجه البوكيرك من هرمز إلى الهند ليواجه هناك بغضب ( دالميدا ) وهو نائب ملك البرتغال الحاكم
سبب الخلاف بين الرجلين : للمعارك التي دخلها البوكيرك في الخليج والتي اتخذ قرارها دون استشارة نائب الملك الذي يعتبر المسؤل الأول عن القوات البرتغالية في الشرق
وكان الرجلان يختلفان في الأهداف, فدالميدا كان هدفه السيطرة على طريق التجارة للهند والحصول على ثروات هذه القارة ومن أجل ذلك عينه ملك البرتغال (عمانويل ) نائباً له هناك,
أما البوكيرك فكانت تسوقه نزعة صليبية وأحلامه في إقامة امبراطورية برتغالية عريضة بالشرق وهو هدف دفع به للتحالف مع شاه ايران لغرض القضاء على العثمانيين والعرب
-------------------
1508
أرسل الغوري إسطولا هزم البرتغاليين عند سواحل مالابار عام 1508
وكان ألاسطول مكون من البحارة المماليك والعثمانيين
وكان الغوري قد إشتكي للبابا في روما من البحرية البرتغالية التي لفت حول أفريقيا ودخلت المحيط الهندي والبحر الأحمر . و

----------------------------

► في أكتوبر 1508 :
شاه إسماعيل يدخل بغداد على رأس الجيوش التركمانية ويطردوا الحاكم (بّورنك) ويسلـّم المدينة لرئيس القوات المسلحة لقائد قواته ويذهب جنوبا ضد المشعشع.

###############################
سنة 1509
► في 3-2-1509 : أغرق البرتغاليين الأسطول المصري في (معركة ديو البحرية) التي كَانتْ معركة بحرية فاصلة في التاريخ
اندلعت قُرْب ديو، الهند، بين أسطول البرتغال و بين أسطول مشترك مِنْ سلطنةِ المماليك البرجيين مِنْ مصر، الدولة العثمانية، كاليكوت وسلطان گوجارات،
طرفا المعركة هما:
الطرف الأول :
الأمير حسين الكردي (مصر)، قائد أسطول (قنصوه الغوري ) سلطان مصر
سفن محمود بگادة, سلطان گجرات
سفن للسلطان العثماني بايزيد الثاني
الزمورين (الراجا الساموثيري) على كاليكوت
الطرف الثاني :
نائب الملك ( دوم فرانسيسكو دي ألميدا) قائد أسطول (مانويل الأول, ملك البرتغال) بالمساعدةِ البحريةِ التقنيةِ من جمهورية البندقية وجمهورية راگوسا (دوبروڤنيك).




=======

[right] في 915هـ/1509م
► بعد عودة البوكيرك للهند قرر نائب الملك التحقيق معه في تجاوزاته متخذاً قسوته في قمع التمرد بين بحارته ذريعة لذلك, لكن الملك (عمانويل الأول ) وقف لجانب البوكيرك بل عينه نائباً لملك البرتغال في الهند وحاكماً عليها وجعل ميناء (جوا) مركزاً لحكومته.
=================
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الفترة (1500-1509 م) أو (905-915هـ) Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: Events of the Period (1500-1509)    الفترة (1500-1509 م) أو (905-915هـ) Icon_minitimeالسبت فبراير 23, 2013 8:25 pm

للباحث والدارس : أحداث باللغة الانجليزية في نفس الفترة :
 
26-1-1500
Spanish explorer Vicente Yanez Pinzon reached the northeastern coast of Brazil during a voyage under his command. Pinzon had commanded the Nina during Christopher Columbus's first expedition to the New World.
   (MC, 1/26/02)
 ---------------------------
1500        Feb 24, Charles V, king of Spain (1516-1556), was born in Ghent, Belgium. He was the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope.
   (HN, 2/24/99)(SFEC, 11/21/99, p.T10)(MC, 2/24/02)
 ---------------------------
1500        Mar 9, Pedro Cabral (~1460-1520), Portuguese navigator, departed to India. He left Lisbon with 13 ships headed for India and was blown off course.
   (WUD, 1994 p.206)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)
 ---------------------------
1500        Apr 8, Battle at Novara: King Louis XII beat duke Ludovico Sforza (Il Sforza del Destino).
   (MC, 4/8/02)
 ---------------------------
1500        Apr 10, France captured duke Ludovico Sforza ("Il Sforza del Destino") of Milan.
   (MC, 4/10/02)
 ---------------------------
1500        Apr 11, Michael T. Marullus, Greeks poet, drowned.
   (MC, 4/11/02)
 ---------------------------
1500        Apr 22, Pedro Alvares Cabral (c1460-c1526), Portuguese explorer, discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal. He anchored for 10 days in a bay he called "Porto Seguro" and continued on to India.  [see Apr 23]
   (WUD,1994, p.206)(AHD, p.185)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(HN, 4/22/98)(SFC, 4/20/00, p.A14)
 ---------------------------
1500        Apr 23, Pedro Cabal landed at Terra da Vera Cruz and claimed Brazil for Portugal. The native population was later estimated to have been from 1 to 11 million people. [see Apr 22]
   (AP, 4/23/98)(SFC, 7/6/98, p.A10)(www.newadvent.org/cathen/03128a.htm)
 ---------------------------
1500        May 29, Bartholomeu Diaz de Narvaez (Novaez), Portuguese sea explorer, drowned.
   (SC, 5/29/02)
 --------------------------
1500        Aug 10, Diego Diaz discovered Madagascar.
   (MC, 8/10/02)
 --------------------------
1500        Oct, Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captured Christopher Columbus and returned him in shackles to Spain. Columbus, during his third sojourn to the new world, engaged in a dispute with the ambassador plenipotentiary to Santo Domingo, Hispaniola (later shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Columbus was later released and forgiven by the Queen.
   (V.D.-H.K.p.143)(SFEC, 3/15/98, Z1 p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v2.htm)
 --------------------------
1500        Nov 1
Benvunuto Cellini (d.1571), Italian goldsmith and sculptor, was born. His 1545 autobiography greatly influenced the Renaissance.
   (HN, 11/1/00)(WSJ, 2/14/00, p.A20)
--------------------------- 
1500    
   Pietro Torrigiani created his sculpture "Virgin and Child."
   (WSJ, 1/29/02, p.A18)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) of Nuremburg painted a self-portrait later described as the most gorgeous portrait ever painted.
   (WSJ, 3/15/08, p.W16)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     Giovanni Bellini painted "The Pieta" and "Portrait of a Young Man."
   (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)
---------------------------
1500  
     Herri met de Bles, Flemish oil painter, created "Landscape With Burning City."
   (WSJ, 9/8/00, p.W8)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     Sandro Botticelli, Italian painter, painted his "Mystic Nativity," but he was out of key with public taste. His reputation was only restored in the 19th century. He also did the circular painting "Adoration of the Christ Child."
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 12/30/97, p.A8)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     Desiderius Erasmus, Dutch humanist scholar, published his "Adagia."
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     During the first half century of printing 1450-1500, the majority of printed books were renderings of Greek and Latin works, previously available only in manuscripts... From this point on, published works in the national languages... were in the majority.
   (V.D.-H.K.p.143)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     Antwerp Cathedral was completed after 148 years of construction.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     Pope Alexander VI proclaimed a Year of Jubilee with a call for a crusade against the Turks.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 ---------------------------
1500        
Aldus Manutius, Italian printer, founded the Venice Academy for the study of Greek classics and he invented Italic type.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 ---------------------------
1500    
   Valencia University was founded.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 ---------------------------
1500    
   The Diet of Augsburg established a Council of Regency to administer the Holy Roman Empire.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     King Louis XII of France captured Milan in the Italian Wars.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     The Vatican established a permanent nunciature (diplomatic service) in Venice.
   (Econ, 7/21/07, p.59)
 ---------------------------
1500  
     Nueva Cadiz was established on Isla de Cubagua off the coast of Venezuela after Columbus discovered rich pearl oyster beds nearby.
   (SSFC, 2/19/06, p.F8)
 ----------------------------
1500  
 The population of the world at about 400 million was distributed as follows:  
   China, Japan, and Korea        130 million
   Europe and Russia            100 million
   India subcontinent            70 million  
   Southeast Asia and Indonesia    40 million
   Central and western Asia        25 million
   Africa                    20 million
   The Americas                 15 million
   (V.D.-H.K.p.168)
 ----------------------------
c1500    
   In northern Argentina 3 Inca children were sacrificed. In 1999 a team of archeologists discovered their frozen mummies on Mount Llullaillaco.
   (SFC, 4/7/99, p.A11)
 ---------------------------
c1500    
    At the end of the 15th century Azerbaijan became the power base of a native dynasty, the Safavids. They established an empire that dominated Iran in the 16th and 17th centuries..
   (CO, Grolier’s Amer. Acad. Enc./ Azerbaijan)
 ---------------------------
c1500    
   Lake Cauhilla in southern California, the predecessor to the Salton Sea, measured 50 by 100 miles and began evaporating.
   (SFC, 11/30/98, p.A22)
 ---------------------------
1500s    
   The Aztecs played ollamalitzli. The game placed a rubber ball through a stone ring and the loser was often beheaded.
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R34)
 ---------------------------
1500s  
     The Navajo began settling on Hopi land. They have farmed in the southwest since this time.
   (SFC, 7/15/96, p.A1)(SFC, 1/3/97, p.A26)
 ---------------------------
1500s  
     Europe began to restrict the practice of medicine to qualified doctors.
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R25)
 ---------------------------
1500s    
   Holland and Saxony began to protect the rights of inventors to their creations.
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
 ---------------------------
1500s    
   Juan de Bermudez of Spain first reported on the island of Bermuda.
   (SFC, 5/2/98, p.E4)
 ---------------------------
1500s    
   The popularity of surströmming, a Swedish fermented herring with a noxious stench, surged in the early 1500s and again in the early 1700s.
   (WSJ, 8/13/02, p.A1)
 ---------------------------
1500s    
   Monomutapa (Zimbabwe) was split in two with the northern half remaining Monomutapa, and a southern half under the rival dynasty of Changamire.
   (ATC, p.148)
 ---------------------------
1500s    
   Portugal settled the island of Sao Tome, 250 miles off the coast of Kongo. Most of the settlers were criminals deported from Portugal. Sugar began to be grown on Sao Tome and slaves were purchased from King Affonso. The Portuguese and Africans did not see slavery the same way. To the Portuguese the slaves were beasts of burden and worked so hard that many died. They then bought more.
   (ATC, p.152)
 
1500s  
     Most people got married in June because they took their yearly bath in May and were still smelling pretty good by June. However, they were starting to smell, so brides carried a bouquet of flowers to hide the body odor.
       Baths equaled a big tub filled with hot water.  The man of the house had the privilege of the nice clean water, then all the other sons and men, then the women and finally the children.  Last of all the babies.  By then the water was so dirty you could actually loose someone in it.   Hence the saying, "Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water".
       Houses had thatched roofs.  Thick straw, piled high, with no wood underneath. It was the only place for animals to get warm, so all the pets... dogs, cats and other small animals, mice, rats, bugs lived in the roof.  When it rained it became slippery and sometimes the animals would  slip and fall off the roof. Hence the saying, "It’s raining cats and dogs,"
       There was nothing to stop things from falling into the house. This posed a  real problem in the bedroom where bugs and other droppings could really  mess  up your nice clean bed.  So, they found if they made beds with big posts  and  hung a sheet over the top, it addressed that problem. Hence those beautiful big 4 poster beds with canopies.
       The floor was dirt.  Only the wealthy had something other than dirt. Hence the saying "dirt poor".
       The wealthy had slate floors which would get slippery in the winter when wet. So they spread thresh on the floor to help keep their footing.  As the winter wore on they kept adding more thresh until when you opened the door it would all start slipping outside.  A piece of wood was placed at the entry way, hence a "thresh hold".
       They cooked in the kitchen with a big kettle that always hung over the fire. Every day they lit the fire and added things to the pot.  They mostly ate vegetables and didn’t get much meat.  They would eat the stew for dinner leaving leftovers in the pot to get cold overnight and then start over the next day. Sometimes the stew had food in it that had been in there for a month. Hence the rhyme: peas porridge hot, peas porridge cold, peas porridge in the pot nine days old."
       Sometimes they could obtain pork and would feel really special when that happened. When company came over, they would bring out some bacon and hang it to show it off.  It was a sign of wealth and that a man "could really bring home the bacon."
       They would cut off a little to share with guests and would all sit around and "chew the fat."
       Those with money had plates made of pewter.  Food with a high acid content caused some of the lead to leach onto the food. This happened most often with tomatoes, so they stopped eating tomatoes... for 400 years.
       Most people didn’t have pewter plates, but had trenchers - a piece of wood with the middle scooped out like a bowl.  Trencher were never washed and a lot of times worms got into the wood.  After eating off wormy trenchers, they would get "trench mouth."
       Bread was divided according to status.  Workers got the burnt bottom of the loaf, the family got the middle, and guests got the top, or the "upper crust".
       Lead cups were used to drink ale or whiskey.  The combination would sometimes knock them out for a couple of days.  Someone walking along the road would take them for dead and prepare them for burial.  They were laid out on the kitchen table for a couple of days and the family would gather around and eat and drink and wait and see if they would wake up. Hence the custom of holding a "wake".
       England is old and small and they started running out of places to bury people.  So, they would dig up coffins and would take their bones to a house and re-use the grave.  In reopening these coffins, one out of 25 coffins were found to have scratch marks on the inside and they realized they had been burying people alive.  So they thought they would tie a string on their wrist and lead it through the coffin and up through the ground and tie it to a bell. Someone would have to sit out in the graveyard all night to listen for the bell. Hence on the "graveyard shift" they would know that someone was "saved by the bell" or he was a "dead ringer".
   (e-mail, Riddiough, 5/14/99)
 ---------------------------
1500-1600
   "Hsi Yu Chi" was a 16th century Chinese novel based on the account of a 7th century monk, Tripitaka, who traveled to India for 16 years for Buddhist scriptures.
   (SFC, 12/7/96, p.D1)
 ---------------------------
1500-1600  
 "The Boke of Hawkynge and Huntynge and Fysshynge" was produced. A copy sold for $88,000 in 2000.
   (SFC, 6/2/00, p.A21)
 ---------------------------
c1500-1600  
 George Pencz, 16th century German artist. His work included "Holy Trinity, Seat of Mercy."
   (SFC, 9/29/01, p.B1)
---------------------------
1500-1600  
 Weimar became the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Weimar.
   (SSFC, 8/1/04, p.D10)
 ---------------------------
1500-1600  
 Yi Am, 16th cent. Korean artist. The artist’s work included: "Puppies, Birds and Blossoms."
   (WSJ, 8/10/98, p.A12)
 ---------------------------
c1500-1600  
 The 16th century French text "The Rules of Civility" was published.
   (SFC, 7/4/02, p.D1)
 ---------------------------
1500-1600  
 The first Russian book printed was the 15th century "Apostle."
   (SFC, 12/27/96, p.C16)
 ---------------------------
1500-1600  
 The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers with their livestock.
   (SFC, 9/24/97, p.A12)
 
c1500-1600    In Honduras the Lenca Indian chieftain Lempira withdrew to the high mountains to lead resistance against the Spaniards. According to legend he plunged to his death from a rocky outcrop near the summit of the highest peak. The Indians developed the Quezungal method of farming, where crops were planted under trees that kept hillsides from eroding.
   (SFC, 11/18/98, p.A14)
 
c1500-1600    Giulio Cesare Aranzi, Italian anatomist, name the hippocampus formation of the brain because of its resemblance to Hippocampus, the seahorse.
   (NH, 9/97, p.56)
 
c1500-1600    Scotsman Rob Roy was forced to become a highland fugitive.
   (SFC, 8/19/96, p.D7)
 
c1500-1600    The Predjama Castle was built at the mouth of a huge cave at Postojna, Slovenia. It was later used by the highway robber Erasmus Luegger.
   (SSFC, 8/18/02, p.C7)
 
c1500-1600    A Muslim pilgrim stole coffee beans from Yemen and raised them in India. Yemen was the first great coffee exporter and in order to protect its trade had decreed that no living plant could leave the country.
   (WSJ, 6/4/99, p.W9)
 
1500-1650    Period of late Renaissance.
   (V.D.-H.K.p.143)
 
c1500-1800    In Nepal the Malla dynasty created an architectural frenzy in Patan between the 16th and 18th centuries.
   (WSJ, 1/22/98, p.A17)
 
1500-1800    Ottoman Turk rule extended over Libya.
   (SSFC, 6/27/04, p.D12)
 
c1500s-1800s        Millions of Africans were torn from their homelands, herded into ships and sold in the New World for more than 300 years. Perhaps the cruelest part of the Atlantic slave trade was the weeks-long sea crossing, or the so-called Middle Passage--that leg of the Triangular Trade that brought the human cargo from West Africa to New World ports. Rather than provide healthful conditions on the sea crossing, slave traders sought to maximize profits with "tight packing"--cramming so many slaves onto the lower decks that those that survived would compensate for the certain losses. The British slave ship Brookes' deck plan shows the ship carrying 454 slaves with 6'x 1'4" of space allowed for each adult male, 5'10" x 11" for each woman and 5' x 1'2" for each boy. This clinical representation of human suffering during the Middle Passage was widely circulated by abolitionist groups.
   (HNPD, 12/14/98)
 
1500-1820    The proto-capitalist epoch. The world GDP grew by .07% per year.
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R54)
 
1501          Mar 1, Lithuania and Livonia established a 10-year union for protection against Russia.
   (LHC, 3/1/03)
 
1501        Mar 20, Jean Carondelet (72), lawyer, chancellor of Burgundy (1480-96), died.
   (MC, 3/20/02)
 
1501        May 20, Joao da Nova Castell discovered the Ascension Islands.
   (MC, 5/20/02)
 
1501        Jul 27, Copernicus was formally installed as canon of Frauenberg Cathedral.
   (MC, 7/27/02)
 
1501        Sep 24, Gerolamo Cardano, mathematician, was born. He authored "Games of Chance," the first systematic computation of probabilities.
   (HN, 9/24/00)
 
1501        Oct 15, English crown prince Arthur married Catharina of Aragon. [see Nov 14]
   (MC, 10/15/01)
 
1501        Nov 14, Arthur Tudor married Katherine of Aragon. [see Oct 15]
   (HN, 11/14/98)
 
1501        Michelangelo was commissioned by Florence, his native home, to carve the colossal statue "David." The work had been by Agostino di Duccio around 1465. Michelangelo finished it in 1504. It was placed at the front of the Palazzo Signoria. In 1873 it was cleaned and moved indoors.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(WSJ, 4/29/03, D5)
 
1501        Books printed before 1501 are called incunabula or incunables, after the Latin word for cradle. The 15th century was the cradle of printing.
   (WSJ, 9/14/00, p.A24)
 
1501        France and Spain occupied Naples, and French troops entered Rome. Louis XII was declared King of Naples by the Pope.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1501        Cesare Borgia captured Romagna (north-central Italy) and appointed Remirro de Orco, his cruelest lieutenant, to pacify the region. After the job was done Borgia had Orco cut in two to gain the gratitude of the people.
   (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)
 
1501        Maximilian I, German emperor, recognized the French conquests of northern Italy in the Peace of Trent.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1501        A worn Roman torso was unearthed in Rome. It later acquired the nickname "Pasquino" and served as a station for posting complaints and opinions that came to be known as Pasquinades.
   (WSJ, 12/31/01, p.A6)
 
1501        The Turks took Durazzo from Venice.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1501        Ivan III, Czar of Russia, invaded Lithuania.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1501        Gaspar de Corte-Real, Portuguese navigator, made the first authenticated European landing on the northern continent of the Western Hemisphere since c1000AD.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1501        Amerigo Vespucci, Florentine navigator, explored the coast of Brazil on his second voyage to the New World.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1501        The Anglo-Portuguese Syndicate completed the first of five voyages to Newfoundland.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Jan 1, Portuguese navigator Pedro Cabral and Amerigo Vespucci sailed the into the harbor of Rio de Janeiro. Portuguese explorers sailed into Guanabra Bay and mistook it for the mouth of a river which they named Rio de Janeiro.
   (Hem., Dec. '95, p.129)(MC, 1/1/02)
 
1502        Feb 12, Vasco da Gama, Portuguese explorer, departed on a second trip to India with 20 well-armed ships.
   (www.indhistory.com/vasco-da-gama.html)
1502        Feb 12, Isabella issued a royal order giving all remaining Moors in the realms of Castile the choice between baptism and expulsion.
   (www.cyberistan.org/islamic/beyond1492.html)
 
1502        Apr 2, Arthur, English crown prince, husband of Catharina of Aragon, died.
   (MC, 4/2/02)
 
1502        May 9, Christopher Columbus left Cadiz, Spain, on his fourth and final trip to the Western Hemisphere. He explored Central America, and discovered St. Lucia, the Isthmus of Panama, Honduras, and Costa Rica. Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica. [see May 11]
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(AP, 5/9/97)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)
 
1502        May 11, Columbus embarked on his 4th voyage with 150 men in 4 caravels. Among those in the fleet were Columbus's brother Bartholomew, and Columbus' younger son Fernando, then just 13 years old. They reached the coast of Honduras after 8 months and passed south to Panama (1503). The ships included the Capitana, which served as the flagship, and the Vizcaina. In 2006 Klaus Brinkbaumer authored “The Voyage of the Vizcaina.”
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)(WSJ, 5/26/06, p.W5)
 
1502        Jun 6, Jofo III, King of Portugal (1521-57), was born.
   (MC, 6/6/02)
 
1502        Jun 7, Pope Gregory XIII was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1582. [see 1552]
   (HN, 6/7/98)(SFEC, 2/20/00, Par p.7)
 
1502        Jun 29, Christopher Columbus arrived at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, on his 4th voyage to the new world. He requested harbor and advised Gov. Nicolas de Ovando of an approaching hurricane. Ovando denied the request and dispatched a treasure fleet to Spain. 20 ships sank in the storm, 9 returned to port and one made it to Spain.
   (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)
 
1502        Jul, Columbus reached the coast of Honduras during his 4th voyage and passed south to Panama.
   (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)
 
1502        Sep 18, Christopher Columbus landed at Costa Rica during his 4th and last voyage.  Columbus left 52 Jewish families in Costa Rica.
   (MC, 9/18/01)(WSJ, 6/15/00, p.A1)
 
1502        Dec 31, Cesare Borgia (son of Pope Alexander VI) occupied Urbino.
   (MC, 12/31/01)
 
1502        Donato Bramante began the Tempietto of S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Vittore Carpaccio began the fresco cycle "Scenes from the Lives of SS George and Jerome." Full of light and detail, it is typical of the Venetian manner.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Lucas Cranch, German painter, began his career in Vienna. In 1521 he painted the famous portrait of Martin Luther.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Leonardo da Vinci drew plans for a 720-foot stone span across the Golden Horn at the mouth of the Bosporus. In 2001 Vebjorn Sand, Norwegian artist, completed a 330-foot, laminated timber bridge linking Norway and Sweden at Aas, 16 miles south of Oslo based on the da Vinci plans.
   (SSFC, 12/9/01, p.C2)
 
1502        Vasco da Gama founded the Portuguese colony at Cochin, China.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Ahuizotl, ruler of the Aztecs, was likely cremated on a funeral pyre about this time. In 2007 Mexican archeologists found underground chambers in Mexico City they believed to contain his remains.
   (AP, 8/4/07)
1502        Montezuma Xocoyotl (Montezuma II), an Aztec prince, inherited the Aztec throne.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(ON, 10/00, p.1)
 
1502        In Germany Peter Henlein of Nuremberg used iron parts and coiled springs to build a portable timepiece.
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R14)
1502        In Germany Wittenberg University was founded.
   (Voruta #27-28, Jul 1996, p.10)(TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Shah Ismail founded the Safavid Dynasty in Persia.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Amerigo Vespucci declared that South America is a separate continent after his second voyage.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        A hurricane nearly destroyed La Nueva Isabela and it was abandoned. The city was rebuilt on the other side of the river as Santo Domingo by the new governor, Nicholas de Ovando.
   (AM, 7/97, p.59)
 
1502        Vasco da Gama returned to Calicut, India. He bombarded the town, burned a ship full of Arab men, women, and children because its captain had offended him, and demanded that the Muslims turn over the trade to the Portuguese. Within a generation his demands were met.
   (V.D.-H.K.p.174)
1502        Portuguese traders took peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.
   (SFEC, 1/10/99, Z1 p.8)
1502        Jaoa de Nova, Portuguese explorer, discovered St. Helena Island.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1502        Spain legalized slave shipments to the Americas.
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)
 
1502-1533    Atahualpa, emperor of the Incas. He had a fortune in gold and silver and tried to purchase his freedom from Pizarro for a chamber filled with gold. Pizarro took 124 tons of gold in ransom and then re-arrested Atahualpa for treason to the Spanish crown and had him decapitated.
   (WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R8)
 
1503        Jan 9, Christopher Columbus returned to the mouth of Rio Belen (western Panama), where he built a garrison.
   (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)
 
1503        Feb 11, Elizabeth of York, Consort of King Henry VII, died on 38th birthday.
   (MC, 2/11/02)
 
1503        Mar 10, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (1558-1564), was born. He was King of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526-1564.
   (HN, 3/10/01)(WUD, 1994 p.523)
 
1503        Mar 28, The 2nd Lithuanian war with Russia (1500-1503) ended with a treaty. Lithuania lost a fourth of its territory.
   (LHC, 3/28/03)
 
1503        Apr 6, Christopher Columbus fended off an Indian attack at his garrison at Rio Belen (Panama).
   (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)
 
1503        Apr 16, Christopher Columbus abandoned the garrison at Rio Belen (Panama) and sailed for home (Hispaniola) with 3 ships. On the way he was shipwrecked in Jamaica.
   (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)
 
1503        May 10, Columbus stumbled across the Cayman Islands and dubbed them Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles.
   (SFEC, 2/16/97, p.T8)(HN, 5/10/98)
 
1503        Jun 25, Christopher Columbus beached his sinking ships in St. Anne’s Bay, Jamaica, and spent a year shipwrecked and marooned there before returning to Spain.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)
 
1503        Aug 18, Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503), born in Spain as Rodrigo di Borgia (1431),  died. He had recently authorized the building of a prison in the cellars of Castel Sant’Angelo in Rome.
   (PTA, p.424)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Alexander_VI)(SSFC, 7/22/07, p.G2)
 
1503        Nov 28, Giuliano della Rovere (1443-1513) was crowned as Pope Julius II.
   (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08562a.htm)
 
1503        Oct 30, Queen Isabella of Spain banned violence against Indians.
   (MC, 10/30/01)
 
1503        Nov 17, Il Bronzino, Florentine painter (Eleanor de Toledo & her Son), was born.
   (MC, 11/17/01)
 
1503        Dec 14, Nostradamus [Michel de Nostredame], prophet, was born in St. Remy, Provence, France. He predicted correctly French king Henri II's manner of death. Nostradamus was the author of a book of prophecies that many still believe foretold the future. He was also physician, an astrologer and a clairvoyant.  He wrote in rhyming quatrains, accurately predicting the Great London Fire in 1666, Spain’s Civil War, and a Hitler that would lead Germany into war. He even correctly predicted his own death on July 2, 1566.
   (HN, 12/14/99)(MC, 12/14/01)
 
1503        Lucas Cranach (1472-1553) the Elder, German artist ( Saxony), completed his painting “The Crucifixion.”
   (www.britannica.com/eb/article-9026747/Lucas-Cranach-the-Elder)
 
1503        Parmigianino (d.1540), Italian painter and master draftsman, was born. His paintings included "Madonna of the Long Neck."
   (WSJ, 2/12/00, p.A25)
 
1503        Leonardo Da Vinci began painting the "Mona Lisa." The model was Lisa Gheradini whose relatives had emigrated to Ireland in the 12th century and translated their surname to Fitzgerald, an ancestral name of later US president John F. Kennedy. Lisa Gherardini (b.1479) was originally identified as the subject of the world's most famous painting by Leonardo's first biographer, the 16th-century Italian writer Giorgio Vasari. [see Nov 3, 1507]
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(SFC, 4/26/97, p.E4)(AP, 9/13/04)
 
1503        Thomas a Kempis published his "Imitation of Christ" in an English translation and it had great religious influence.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1503        Canterbury Cathedral was finished after 433 years of construction.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1503        Henry VII’s chapel, the final stage of English gothic art, was begun in Westminster Abbey.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1503        The pocket handkerchief came into general use in polite European society.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1503        The missionary Bartolome de Las Casa described the brutal destruction of a Taino Indian city, La Aleta (later in the Dominican Republic). Captain-Gen’l. Juan de Esquival led a Spanish force that massacred 600-700 Higuey Tainos for rebelling after one of their chiefs was disemboweled by a Spanish attack dog. In 1997 archeologists found evidence of a city at the site called La Aleta.
   (SFC, 3/29/97, p.A10)(AM, 7/97, p.60)
 
1503        Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to decorate a hall in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence. For some 18 months he worked on a mural for the 1440 Battle of Anghiari but abandoned the work in 1506. The mural was later lost when Georgio Vasari was hired to remodel the hall.
   (WSJ, 11/9/07, p.W4)
 
1503        The French in Italy were defeated by the Spaniards in the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano, and Spanish forces entered Naples.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1503        A War of Succession broke out between Albert IV of Bavaria and Rupert of the Palatinate (a state of the Holy Roman Empire).
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1503        Jean Poyet, French Renaissance artist, died. His work included "Vespers: Massacre of the Innocents and Flight Into Egypt."
   (WSJ, 2/22/00, p.A20)
 
1503        Zanzibar became a Portuguese colony.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1504        Jan 17, Pius V, Pope from 1566-1572, was born.
   (HN, 1/17/99)
 
1504        Feb 29, An eclipse occurred and helped Christopher Columbus subdue his rebellious Indian carriers.
   (SCTS, p.29)
 
1504        Apr 1, English guilds went under state control.
   (MC, 4/1/02)
 
1504        Apr 18, Fra Filippo Lippi (~52), painter, died.
   (MC, 4/18/02)
 
1504        Apr 23, King Maximilian I routed troops to Bavaria.
   (MC, 4/23/02)
 
1504        May 5, Anton of Burgundy (~82), the Great Bastard, knight, died.
   (MC, 5/5/02)
 
1504        Jun 29, Diego Mendez, one of Columbus's captains, returned to Jamaica with a small caravel and rescued the Columbus expedition. Mendez had managed to take a canoe from Jamaica to Hispaniola where he chartered the rescue ship.
   (http://www1.minn.net/~keithp/v4.htm)
 
1504        Aug 6, Matthew "Nosey" Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, was born.
   (MC, 8/6/02)
 
1504        Nov 7, Columbus returned to Spain following his 4th voyage after suffering a shipwreck at Jamaica. Columbus brought back cocoa beans and chocolate drinks soon became a favorite in the Spanish court. In 2005 Martin Dugard authored “The Last Voyage of Columbus.”
   (EWH, 1968, p.390)(WSJ, 1/11/99, p.R49)(SSFC, 6/26/05, p.C1)
 
1504        Nov 26, Isabella I (53), Catholic Queen of Castille and Aragon (1474-1504), patron of Columbus died.
   (MC, 11/26/01)
 
1504        Raphael painted "The Marriage of the Virgin." It exemplified the major principles of High Renaissance art.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1504        Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) drew his "Adam and Eve."
   (SFEC, 2/9/97, DB p.6)
 
1504        The Signoria of Florence commissioned Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo to paint the walls of the Grand Council Chamber in the Palazzo Vecchio.
   (OG)
 
1504        In Florence Leonardo da Vinci and Machiavelli became involved in a scheme to divert the Arno River and thereby cut the water supply to Pisa and force its surrender. Colombino, the project foreman, failed to follow da Vinci’s design, and the project was a spectacular failure. This is covered in the 1998 book "Fortune Is a River" by Roger D. Masters.
   (WSJ, 6/22/98, p.A20)
 
1504        Louis XII of France ceded Naples to Ferdinand II of Aragon in the Treaty of Lyon. Naples remained under Spanish control for the next 200 years.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1504        Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, captured Kabul in Afghanistan and maintained control to 1519. Babur’s mother descended from Genghis Khan and his father from Timur (Tamerlane).
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)(www.afghan, 5/25/98)(WSJ, 10/24/00, p.A12)
 
1504        Venetian ambassadors proposed to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1504        Henry Tudor, king of England, had coins minted with an accurate self likeness.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.8)
 
1505        Feb 4, Joan of Valois (40), Queen of France, saint, died.
   (MC, 2/4/02)
 
1505          Feb 26, In Brest Polish Chancellor J. Laski invited the Lithuanian government to reconfirm and expand the 1501 Union of Melnik, but the offer was rejected.
   (LHC, 2/26/03)
 
1505        Apr 20, Jews were expelled from Orange, Burgundy, by Philibert of Luxembourg.
   (MC, 4/20/02)
 
1505        Jul 24, On their way to India, a group of Portuguese explorers sacked the city-state of Kilwa, East Africa, and killed the king for failing to pay tribute.
   (HN, 7/24/98)
 
1505        Oct 27, The Grand Duke of Moscow, Ivan III (also known as "Ivan the Great"), died; he was succeeded by his son, Vasily III (Basil III). Vasily's son, Ivan IV, later became the first czar of Russia, "Ivan the Terrible."
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(AP, 10/27/05)
 
1505        Dec 18, John IX van Horne, prince-bishop of Lieges, Belgium, was executed.
   (MC, 12/18/01)
 
1505        Giovanni Bellini painted "The Virgin and Child with Saints," the most perfect realization of the "holy conversation" theme in all of Western painting.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1505        Hieronymus Bosch began his triptych "The Garden of Earthly Delights" and marked the last fling of the Gothic Middle Ages. He also painted "The Temptation of St. Anthony."
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SFC, 8/27/98, p.E3)
 
1505        Giorgione painted "The Concert."
   (WSJ, 7/16/02, p.D6)
 
1505        Pope Julius summoned Michelangelo to Rome to design the pope’s tomb. The contract was revised 5 times and only 3 of 40 large figures were executed.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)
 
1505        Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Battle of Anghiari” on a wall in Florence’s Palazzo Vecchio. It commemorated a victory of Florentine forces over the ruling Medici. In 1563 the Medici, having regained power, hired Giorgio Vasari to cover up Leonardo’s work with a painting celebrating one of their own martial successes. It was later thought that Vasari hid the original behind his new work.
   (WSJ, 4/10/08, p.D7)
 
1505        Raphael painted his “Madonna of the Goldfinch” about this time for the wedding of a friend, Lorenzo Nasi. The painting was shredded in 1548 when Nasi’s palace collapsed. The work was pieced together and modern restoration, which began in 1999, was completed in 2008.
   (SFC, 10/31/08, p.E7)
 
1505        Wimpfeling published the first history of Germany, "Epitome Rerum Germanicarum."
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1505        Maximilian I began a reformation of the Holy Roman Empire.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1505        Christ’s College, Cambridge, England, was founded.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1505        Magellan began to serve Portugal when he enlisted in the fleet of Francisco de Almeida. He continued in Portuguese service on many expeditions, being wounded in a campaign against the Moroccan stronghold of Azamor in 1513.  The wound caused him to limp for the rest of his life. Magellan petitioned King Manuel of Portugal for an increase in his pension as a titular rise in rank, but the king refused and sent him back to Morocco. Upon his second petition in 1516, Magellan was told he might offer his services elsewhere.
   (HNQ, 10/9/00)
 
1505        A well armed Portuguese fleet attacks Kilwa and then Mombasa. The Portuguese then attempt to monopolize the trade in the east African ports but were unable to maintain control. By the late 1500s, Swahili groups regained control of several ports from the Portuguese..
   (ATC, p.144)
 
1505        Portuguese explorers discovered Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and established factories on the east coast of Africa.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1505        Christopher Columbus died in poverty in Spain. Columbus was the author of "Books of Prophecies," later translated by Delno C. West.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 10/8/99, p.W15)
 
1505-1585    Thomas Tallis, English organist and vocal composer, especially of church music.
   (WUD, 1994, p.1450)
 
1506        Jan 22, The Swiss Guard mercenaries, summoned by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican, arrived in Rome.
   (USAT, 5/6/98, p.6A)(AP, 1/22/06)
 
1506        Apr 7, Francis Xavier, saint, Jesuit missionary to India, Malaya, and Japan, was born.
   (MC, 4/7/02)
 
1506        May 19, Columbus selected his son Diego as sole heir.
   (MC, 5/19/02)
 
1506        May 20, Christopher Columbus (55) died in poverty in Spain, still believing he discovered the coast of Asia. Columbus died in the Spanish city of Valladolid, and was initially interred in a monastery there. Three years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja. In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of Columbus' son Diego, was allowed to send the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial. There they lay until 1795, when Spain ceded the island of Hispaniola to France and decided Columbus' remains should not fall into foreigners' hands. A set of remains that the Spaniards thought were Columbus' were then dug up from behind the main altar in the newly built cathedral and shipped to a cathedral in Havana, where they remained until the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898 and Spain brought them to Seville. But in 1877, workers digging inside the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing 13 large bone fragments and 28 small ones. It was inscribed "Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon." The Dominicans said these were the real remains of Columbus and that the Spaniards must have taken the wrong remains in 1795.
   (AP, 5/20/97)(HN, 5/20/99)(AP, 10/13/02)(SFC, 1/18/05, p.A8)
 
1506        Albrecht Durer painted his "Portrait of a Young Woman."
   (SFEC, 12/26/99, p.C17)
 
1506        Giorgione painted “The Three Philosophers” about this time.
   (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
 
1506        The Laocoon sculpture was unearthed in Rome. It served as a peg for Goethe’s aesthetic theories. It later inspired Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, 18th century German dramatist and critic, to write one of the greatest essays ever written on a work of ancient art.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(WSJ, 9/7/99, p.A23)
 
1506        Pope Julius II placed the 1st stone for the new St. Peter’s Basilica. Bramante began to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome, which had been neglected since the 14th century when the popes resided at Avignon. Pope Urban VIII consecrated it in 1626.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(SSFC, 2/18/07, p.A2)
 
1506        The University of Frankfurt-on-the-Oder was founded.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1506        Jacob Fugger, Augsburg merchant, imported spices to Europe from the East Indies.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1506        The Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1506        Machiavelli, Italian diplomat, established the Florentine militia, the first Italian national troops.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
1506        Andrea Mantegna (b.1431), Italian painter and engraver, died. His paintings included a dead Christ, “Christo Morto,” whose bare feet seem to stick out of the picture. He also painted "Virgin and Child in Glory."
   (WSJ, 6/6/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 7/13/97, p.T11)(WSJ, 11/10/07, p.W14)
 
1506        King Chungjong (r.1506-1544) began his rule in Korea. He restored Confucian rule with the support of officials who had deposed King Yongsan-gun.
   (www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/history/early_choson_period.htm)
 
1506        Riots in Lisbon, Portugal, led to the slaughter of 2,000-4,000 converted Jews. This became the setting for a 1998 novel by Richard Zimler, "The Last Kabbalist of Lisbon."
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9) (WSJ, 6/8/98, p.A21)
 
1506        Philip I of Castile died and was succeeded by a Council of Regency because of the insanity of his widow.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1506        Mozambique, Africa, was colonized by the Portuguese.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1506-1510    Leonardo da Vinci divided his time between Florence and Milan, where he serve Charles d’Amboise, the region’s French governor. It was in this period that he compiled his illustrated observations that came to be known as the 72-page Codex Leicester. It consists of 18 loose, double-sided sheets, written in mirror script and illustrated with about 360 sketches. The work was first planned as a treatise on the motion of water.
   (SFC, 10/29/96, p.F3)(WSJ, 10/31/96, p.A21)(NH, 11/96, p.14,96)
 ---------------------------
1507        Jan 15, Johann Oporinus [Herbster], Swiss book publisher (Koran), was born.
   (MC, 1/15/02)
 
1507        Feb 23, Gentile Bellini, Venetian artist, died.
   (www.boglewood.com/cornaro/xgentilebellini.html)
 ---------------------------
1507        Mar 12,
Cesare Borgia (31), cardinal, soldier, politician, died while fighting alongside his brother, the king of Navarre, in Spain.
   (HN, 3/12/99)(MC, 3/12/02)
 ---------------------------
1507        Apr 25,
Martin Waldseemuller, a German geographer working at a small college in Eastern France, labeled the New World "America," for the first time in his book "Cosmographiae Introductio," and gave Amerigo Vespucci (d.1512) credit for discovering it. Letters of 1504-1505 had circulated in Florence claimed that Vespucci had discovered the new World. Vespucci was in fact only a passenger or low officer on one of the ships captioned by others. Vespucci was later believed to have been the brother of Simonetta Vespucci, the model for Venus in the Botticelli painting. In 2000 the US Library of Congress planned to acquire the original map for $14 million from the Prince Johannes Waldburg-wolfegg. A $10 million purchase was completed in 2003.
   (SFEC, 8/23/98, p.T10)(SFC, 10/27/00, p.C14)(WSJ, 7/25/03, p.W19)(AP, 4/25/07)
 ---------------------------
1507        Oct 1,
Italian architect Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola was born.
   (AP, 10/1/07)
 ---------------------------
1507        Nov 3,
Leonardo da Vinci was commissioned to paint Lisa Gherardini ("Mona Lisa"). The husband of Lisa del Giocondo commissioned Leonardo da Vinci to paint the "Mona Lisa," shortly after she had 3 teeth pulled and false teeth fitted. In 2001 Donald Sassoon authored "Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon." [see 1503]
   (SFC, 3/21/98, p.E3)(HN, 11/3/00)(WSJ, 12/7/01, p.W16)
 
1507
       Giorgione painted his “Sunset Landscape” about this time.
   (WSJ, 8/3/06, p.D5)
 ---------------------------
1507  
     Margaret of Austria was appointed Regent by the States-General (parliament) of the Netherlands until the Archduke Charles came of age.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 ---------------------------
1507  
     The Diet of Constance recognized the unity of the Holy Roman Empire and founded the Imperial Chamber, the empire’s supreme judicial court.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 ---------------------------
1507        Genoa was annexed by the French.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1507        Martin Luther was ordained.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1507        Pope Julius II announced an indulgence for the re-building of St. Peter’s.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1507        Johannes Ruysch produced the first printed map of America, as declared by the selling map dealer, R.B. Arkway, Inc. It is dotted with Asian place names. In 1995 it was for sale for $135,000.
   (WSJ, 11/24/95, p.B-8)
 
1507-1650    The shores of Oman were dominated by Portuguese adventurers who were responsible for the forts of Mirani and Jalali. The native Bedouins spoke the Harsusi language.
   (NG, 5/95, p.121-123)
 
1508        Feb 4, Proclamation of Trent.
   (HN, 2/4/99)
 
1508        Feb 6, King Maximilian I (1459-1519) assumed the title of Emperor (1493-1519) without being crowned.
   (TL-MB, p.9)(WUD, 1994, p.886)(MC, 2/6/02)
 
1508        Aug 12, Ponce de Leon arrived and conquered the island of Boriquen (Puerto Rico). Spain had appointed him to colonize Puerto Rico. He explored Puerto Rico and Spanish ships under his command began to capture Bahamanian Tainos to work as slaves on Hispaniola. His settlement at Caparra, 2 miles south of San Juan Bay, was plagued by Taino Indians and cannibalistic Carib Indians.
   (NH, 10/96, p.23)(SC, 8/12/02)(http://welcome.topuertorico.org/glossary/index.shtml#936)
 
1508        Nov 30, Andrea Palladio (d.1580), [Andrea di Piero della Gondola], Italian Renaissance architect, was born in Padua.
   (AM, Mar/Apr 97 p.14)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Palladio)
 
1508        Giorgione painted "The Tempesta," a landscape of a stormy setting with a town in the background, a soldier lower left and a woman nursing to the right. It is at the Academia Gallery in Venice.
   (T&L, 10/80, p. 58)(WSJ, 12/4/97, p.A20)
 
1508        Pope Julius II transferred Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling in Rome.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)(OG)
 
1508        Raphael at age 26 entered the service of Pope Julius II and was entrusted with the decoration of the new papal apartments.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1508        The League of Cambrai was formed against Venice by Ferdinand of Aragon, Emp. Maximilian, Louis XII of France, and Pope Julius II as part of an ongoing dispute over sovereignty in Italy.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1508        Alfonso d’Albuquerque, Portuguese navigator, conquered Muscat in Oman.
   (AM, May/Jun 97 p.53)
 
1508        Sebastian de Ocampo, Spanish navigator, explored Cuba.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1508        In England Althorp was bought by John Spencer, the ancestor of the 9th Earl Spencer, Princess Diana’s brother. The estate in Great Brington was selected as the grave site for Princess Diana in 1997.
   (SFC, 4/3/98, p.B2)
 
1509        Jan 25, Giovanni Morone, Italian theologist, diplomat, cardinal, "heretic," was born.
   (MC, 1/25/02)
 
1509        Apr 21, Henry VII (b.1457), 1st Tudor king of England (1485-1509), died.
   (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_VII_of_England)
 
1509        Apr 22, Henry Tudor became King  Henry VIII of England following the death of his father, Henry VII. He soon married Catherine of Aragon, his brother’s widow and the aunt of Charles V (the Holy Roman Emperor), and fathered Mary, future Queen of England.
   (V.D.-H.K.p.161)(AP, 4/22/08)
 
1509        Apr 27, Pope Julius II excommunicated the republic of Venice. The pope lifted the ban in February 1510.
   (AP, 4/27/07)
 ---------------------------
1509        May 14,
In the Battle of Agnadello, the French defeat the Venetians in Northern Italy.
   (HN, 5/14/98)
 ---------------------------
1509        May 20
Catharina Sforza (45), "La Sforza del Destino", Italian duchess of Forli, died.
   (MC, 5/20/02)
 
1509        Jun 11,
England's King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon.
   (AP, 6/11/97)(HN, 6/11/98)
---------------------------
1509        Jun 11,
In Italy troops of Florence took Pisa.
   (AP, 6/11/03)
 
1509    
   Jun 24,
Henry VIII was crowned king of England.
   (AP, 6/24/97)(HN, 6/24/98)
 
1509        Jul 10,
John Calvin, founder of Calvinism, the basis for modern Protestantism, was born.
   (HN, 7/10/98)
 
1509  
     Andrea Calmo (d.1571, Venetian playwright, was born about this time. He became a pioneer in comedia dell’arte.
   (www.italica.rai.it/rinascimento/saggi/commedia_cinquecento/capitoli/lezion17.html)
 
1509        Fra Bartolomeo, Italian artist, painted "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John." It was purchased by the Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA) for close to $4 million. His work "The Holy Family with the Infant St. John," was purchased by the John Paul Getty Museum in Malibu for $22.5 mil.
   (WUD, 1994, p.123)(SFC, 5/13/96, p.D-5)(WSJ, 10/29/96, p.A21)(SFEC, 1/11/98, p.D7)
 
1509  
     Sebastian Brant’s "Ship of Fools," a satire first published in 1494, appeared in an English version by Alexander Barclay.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1509  
     Erasmus lectured at Cambridge and dedicated his "In Praise of Folly," a witty satire on church corruption and scholastic philosophy, to Thomas More.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1509  
     In Lisbon, Portugal, the tile-bedecked church, Igreja de Madre de Deus, was built.
   (SFEC, 2/1/98, p.T7)
 
1509  
     Johann Pfefferkorn, a converted Jew, led a persecution of the Jews in Germany under Maximilian I.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1509  
     Brasenose College, Oxford, and St. John’s College, Cambridge, were founded.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1509  
     The Egyptian and Gujarat fleets were routed by the Portuguese at the Battle of Diu, which left the latter in control of the Indian seas and the spice trade.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 
1509  
     Spanish armies invaded North Africa in a crusade against the Muslim rulers of Tripoli, Oran, and Bougie.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 ---------------------------
1509    
   Spanish conquistadores founded a colony at Darien on the Isthmus of Panama.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 ---------------------------
1509  
     The Venetian defeat at Agnadello led to the annexation of Faenza, Rimini, and Ravenna by Pope Julius II, and Otranto and Brindisi by Ferdinand of Aragon.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 ---------------------------
1509  
     Peter Henlein, Nuremberg inventor, invented the watch, nicknamed the Nuremberg egg.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.9)
 ---------------------------
1509-1520  
 The Spanish colonized the area of Nueva Granada (modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela).
   (http://homepage20.seed.net.tw/web@3/flags/wfh/pg-am-4.htm)
 ---------------------------
1509-1564  
 John Calvin, French theologian. He started the Protestant Reformation in France in 1532.
   (TL-MB, 1988, p.14)(SFC, 7/21/97, p.A11)
 
 
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